Close
Duke shfaqur rezultatin -19 deri 0 prej 13
  1. #1
    i/e regjistruar Maska e SERAFIM DILO
    Anėtarėsuar
    06-01-2008
    Postime
    7,110

    "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Merav Rotem Namaan (Nautilus) : " Ju tregoj si ka arritur Izraeli te behet nje starup nation".

    Interviste. Tel Aviv.

    Si ka arritur Izraeli te behet nje starup nation ?

    Jemi nje vend i vogel,me pak a shume 8 milion banore. Praktikisht nje ishull,gjithmon ne gjendje lufte. Nuk kemi risurse natyrore,60 % e vendit eshte shkretetire. Ate qe kemi pikerisht, eshte nje histori e gjate besimi ne arsim. Mendoj se ishte edhe ne fillim te krijimit te Shtetit,kur duhet te nxirrnim diēka nga asgjeja. Te jesh emigrant do te thote te jesh nje sipermarres,sepse duhet te rindertosh jeten tende. Ebrenjte gjithmone jane perzene nga nje shtet ne tjetrin. Gjysherit e mi kane ikur nga Olokausti. Nuk kishin kapitale, nuk kishin asgje. Dhe nuk ishin te ndryshem nga pjesa me e madhe e njerezve ketu ne ate epoke ;shume emigrante dhe shume sipermarres. Eshte diēka qe ka infiltruar ne kulturen tone.

    Kultura si strategji e mbijeteses,ateher.

    Jo vetem. Nje karakteristik e jona eshte te jemi pak... te ashper. Si i thuhet te jesh hutzpah (chutzpah). Eshte diēka qe te jesh midis guximit ...dhe,nganjehere kalojme dhe vijen dhe behemi te paedukat (qesh). Ideja eshte se ne qofte se kerkon diēka duhet te shkosh dhe te maresh.Dhe te thuash gjithmone ate ēfare mendon,edhe kur nuk eshte momenti i duhur,pa turp edhe te vesh ne diskutim autoritetet. Edhe ne ushtri jemi te inkurajuar te vene ne diskutim autoritetet. Ushtaret mundet ti therrasin komandantet me emerin e tyre,dhe te kundershtojn (kontestim) ate qe thote shtabi i larte. Dhe eshte me mire keshtu- jane te shtyre qe te bejne nje gje te tille. Edhe kjo na ndihmon te jemi sipermarres,te nxitemi per ta realizuar.

    Ushtria ka patur nje rol kryesor ne zhvillimin teknologjik ashtu si edhe ne Amerike.


    Po. Perpara te gjithave,nga ushtria vjen jashte saj teknologjia,p.r,sh e famshmja brigada teknologjike 8200-intelligence technology. Shume njerez qe me vone kane krijuar ndermarje teknologjike te sukseshme ne Izrael vine nga ushtria. Shembull Checkpoint,ndermarja qe ka perparuar me firewall. E kane shvilluar ne ushtri e me vone kane krijuar nje ndermarje.Shume tani po zhvillojne ndermarje te cybersecurity,computer vision,inteligjenc artificiale,deep learning,machine learning,kane filluar nga aty,me gjerat qe kane mesuar atje... eshte nje nga me te mirat universitete tech te botes. Duke sherbyer ne ushtri sterviten qe te kene nje eksperienc te vertete,dalin nga aty te formuar,ne njefare kuptimi.


    Ka edhe njefare kuptimi social ?


    Ushtria luan nje rol mjaft te madh ne ambjentin shoqeror ne Izrael ; sherbimi ushtarak eshte i detyrueshem si per meshkujt dhe femrat. Dhe eshte edhe nje menyre per te ngushtuar ndryshimin ekonomik. Kush ka lindur ne nje zone te varfer te Shtetit kryen sherbimin ushtarak bashke me ate qe vjen nga nje familje e pasur.Aty jane te gjithe te barabarte. Zhvillohet nje network. Ke nevoje-mundet te mendosh edhe per Silicon Valley. Ne ushtri mund ta besh,ke ndihmen qe nuk mundesh ta kesh normalisht. Dhe mbi te gjitha ke keta femij 18 vjeēar qe ju jepen pergjegjsi shume te larta ; kjo krijon besim ne vetvete,mendon se mundet te besh gjithēka.


    Pastaj kalohet nga pergjegjsia ushtarake ne pergjegjsine sipermarrese.



    Eshte mentaliteti "get stuff done". Duhet te ēojme deri ne fund punen. Nuk ka rendesi se si,mjafton ta perfundosh. Pastaj sigurisht qe duhet paraja dhe zgjuarsia per te bere exit,sepse pa para nuk mundet te shkosh te startup.


    Mundet te japesh disa shifra per te kuptuar dimensionet e startup nation ?


    Sot kemi te pakten 300 forma te koperimit intenacional qe kane r&d center ne Izrael. Qe bashkpunojne me startup,duke investuar,blere ose te dyja bashke... Ne 2015 kemi pasur 9 miliard dollare ne exit,pothuajse 5 miliarde te investuar ne startup. Izraeli ka 4800 startup ; nje shifer e ēmendur,per nje vend me 8 milione bonore. Pastaj duhet patjeter rethi akademik ; kemi disa nga universitetet me te avancuara ne bote. Pastaj ke nevoje per para. Tani nuk eshte problem.


    Cfare roli luan Shteti ne kete zhvillim ?


    Nje rol shum te madh ne fillim. Ne vitet 70 qeveria krijoj te parat venture capital. Kjo beri te mundur qe shoqerite private te kishin para publike qe ti investonin ne startup ; ata nuk dinin si ta benin. Te investosh ne startup nuk eshte sikur te investosh ne ēdo gje,se e ben duhet ta besh ne menyren e drejte,ndryshe vret ndermarrjen.
    Nje faze tjeter ishte ajo e viteve 90,kur patem 1 milion emigrant nga Bashkimi Sovietik- ishin nje e katerta e popullsis ! Ishte e veshtire,per nje Shtet te vogel ne gjendje lufte. Por qeveria beri diēka shume interesante. Kuptuan qe shume nga ata kishin nje arsimim teknologjik,keshtu krijuan inkubatoret per te hequr inxhineret nga rruga. Filloi te ngrihej fuqia e madhe inxhinieristike qe kemi sot ne Izrael. Mbasi perfundoi ky proēes,inkubatoret paten nje detyre tjeter,ate te terheqjes te parave (kapitalit) nga jashte.


    Ne ēfare menyre ?


    U zgjodh nje formule : investimi per 85 % me para publike,duke lene 15 % investitoreve dhe shoqerive intenacionale,qe pastaj marin 100 % te equity. Qeveria mer mbrapsh parate e saja veten ne qofte se startup ka sukses. Shteti mer pjesen me te madhe te rrezikut dhe kjo i jep kurajo investimenteve te huaja. Pastaj ka programe te tjera te taksimit...domethene qe Shteti ka ber shume per te terhequar investimet nga jashte. Tani eshte formuar nje cikel,investohet ne Izrael sepse eshte e lehte te besh exit,dhe eshte krijuar nje force pune e kualifikuar. Inxhinerat e shoqerive te medha ushqejne startup te ekosistemin.

    Keto startup ne Izrael punojne per tregun e huaj. Nuk eshte se pastaj duke u zmadhuar mendojne te trasferohen jashte vendit ? P.r.sh ne Silicon Valley.


    Por edhe kthehen,sepse duan te krijojne nje ndermarje tjeter,ose vetem investojne,ose veprojne si mentors. Tete vjet perpara,per 60 vjetorin e Izraelit,u be nje program per ata qe ktheheshin : 10 vjet mospagim taksash per rediton qe kishin jashte Izraelit. Shum u kthyen keshtu. Taksat ne Izrael jane shume te larta. Por zakonisht izraeljanet duan te rine ca kohe jashte por pastaj kthehen. Mbase sepse jemi nje shtet i ri,dhe kemi idealin ta ndertojme nje gje ketu...
    Ah,edhe nje gje te fundit.


    Te lutem.


    Falimentimi tregon eksperience ne Izrael. Te falimentosh eshte nje gje e madhe. Ne qofte se ke falimentuar, dua te investoj tek ty. E egzagjeroj pak,por ne pergjithsi,falimentimi shikohet si eksperience jo si nje bast i humbur. Se ke rrezikuar do te thote qe ke dhe aftesine. Me shum propabilitet ke mesuar nga gabimet e tua dhe ke me shume mundesi te behesh nje sipermarres me i mire.





    Startupitalia! Francesco Riccardi.

  2. #2
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Formula e israleit jane forca e AIpac per lobim https://www.amazon.com/Israel-Lobby-.../dp/0374531501 dhe vrasjet etnike te paletinevse . https://www.amazon.com/Ethnic-Cleans.../dp/1851685553

    Cvatja e territorit nga Paletineset me force.

    http://www.ifamericansknew.org/history/maps.html


    Dhe justoifikime ne blereje te nje pjese te vogel https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish...e_in_Palestine me gjhithse ata kane ekspanuar cdo vit me shume qe ehste e dokumentuar me force, dhe jane hedhur poshte nga un dhe oragnizatet te tjera https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intern...li_settlements


    Sa qe tashme dhe sekretarit te shtetit John Kerri [qe eshte cifut vete i konvertuar] iu desh ti bente preson
    http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/1.756955


    Nje komb qe eksiston vetem ne librat fetare dhe thote qe jane te drejta e tyre ne isreal, qe qe ska lidhje fare me historine.


    Nje komb me gjithkto gjera e quajn demkorat :
    https://www.amazon.com/Blood-Religio...yStar=one_star




    Sa per silicon valley jane shumica cifut dhe kane ber gjithmone bashkpunim me teknollogjine amerikane.Po mos tishte per bashkpunim me monoplin teknollogjik [ dhe favorizmave ne shklollimn ne ivy leaguye nga vete persiudente cifut te universitetve dhe despotizem http://davidduke.com/jewish-racist-d...ts-at-harvard/ duke i nxjerr me vone nxenesit nga klto skolla ne vendet me stratgjike ceo/ R&D networtking [ https://www.radioislam.org/islam/eng...d_internet.htm ]cifut ktej, nuk do kishte zhvillim aty dhe silicon wadey ne isreal qe ehste kopje e silicon valleys as do eksistonte:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_Wadi

    Thjesht fare po most te kishin pozita favorituese / monopoliste/depotizem dhe bashkpunim silicon valley dhe fonde nga taksapugesit amerikan qe is shkojn izrealit cdo vit,

    https://www.salon.com/2016/09/18/ame...-bill_partner/




    http://www.wrmea.org/congress-u.s.-a...nd-impact.html

    http://www.wrmea.org/1997-december/t...to-israel.html


    teknollogjine israeli do e shifte me dylbi.
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 17-12-2016 mė 13:42

  3. #3
    i/e regjistruar Maska e SERAFIM DILO
    Anėtarėsuar
    06-01-2008
    Postime
    7,110

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Akoma me Wikin je,e bere Wikin telef !

    Tabela e popullsis ne qytetin e Jeruzalemit.

    viti,banor,ebrenj,musulman,kristjan.
    1876. 25.000 12.000 7.500 5.500
    1905. 60.000 40.000 7.000 13.000
    1913. 75.000 48.000 10.000 17.000
    1922. 62.578 33.971 13.413 14.969
    1931. 90.000 51.000 20.000 19.000
    1948. 165.000 100.000 40.000 25.000
    1967. 216.463 195.700 54.963 10.800

  4. #4
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Ou kshu wikipedia qeka komplet kot ? Faktikisht wikipedia nuk jep qoutat nga i merr fare apo jo faktet ku mbeshtetet?


    Haha je i fort .Dmth ka pas me shuime cifut ne fillimet se sa ka pat muliman megjithse komplet ai vend ka qene nen sundimin ottoman prej dekadash e shekujsh, dhe isreali si shtet as qe ka eksistuar jo vbetm si shtet por edhe si emer nuk ka dokument historik qe emri i izraelit te eksitoj diku, para krijimit modern.

    Ca censusi e detrminonte kte popullsiu ku bazohej?

    Tjeter pytje: Ku i nxorre kto numrat nga kush organizate nederkombtare historike, njihen globalisht?

    Organizatat qe kan nohur numrat e publikuara vet, jane ato pro cifute qe skan lidhje fare me historine.



    Sa per ritjen e popullsise cifute njihen qe shumica ka ardh nga imigrimi i cifutve rus anglez, amerikan, gjerman, polak, hollandez,francez dhe spanjol ne Izrael ne opercajonin aliyah zionist 1882–1903 me blerjen e tokave , i dytin 1904–1914, dhe i treti 1919–1923 qe ehste njohur historikisht dhe dokumentaur :


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliyah

    Ktu i ke kuotatat nga vete cifutet :

    http://www.reformjudaism.org/history...-israel-aliyah

    http://www.myjewishlearning.com/arti...-19th-century/


    Qe vete david Ben-Gurion babai i zionismit modern qe me lobin amerikan e anglez cifut, vet deklaroni si shtet isrealin dhe u kthye ne minister te ktij shteti.

    https://history.state.gov/milestones...reation-israel




    E di masascer e yasinit ca roli pati?
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deir_Yassin_massacre
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 17-12-2016 mė 20:08

  5. #5
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Jo vetem kaq por edhe unesko qe eshte nje nga organiztat botreore qe njef dhe mbron arkjologjine dhe historke bortrore, e ka njohur isrealin si shtet modren qe ska ket lidhje me Jerusalemin, dhe aq me teper ska organizate botrore hiostorike qe te njohi shtrirjen e isrealit te sotem :


    http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7...866113,00.html
    http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Pol...tch-MEP-470456
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 17-12-2016 mė 20:09

  6. #6
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Jo vetem qe ska patur fakte historike te mirffilta, por si varjojn censjus dhe shume kouta te njerzve te ndryshem se varjojne qe jane inkonsitente me njera tjetren dhe rritjen nga cdo vit:




    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demogr...y_of_Jerusalem



    Early Ottoman era[edit]
    Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in
    1525–6 1,194 3,704 714 5,612 Ottoman taxation registers* Cohen and Lewis[15]
    1538–9 1,363 7,287 884 9,534 Ottoman taxation registers* Cohen and Lewis[15]
    1553–4 1,958 12,154 1,956 16,068 Ottoman taxation registers* Cohen and Lewis[15] Cohen and lewis jane cifute qe gjasme u moren me shqyrtimin e regjistrave ottomane partjale dhe pse partjale i dolen numrat e muslimanve me te medha.
    1596–77 ? 8,740 252 ? Ottoman taxation registers* Cohen and Lewis[15]
    1723 2,000 ? ? ? Van Egmont & Heyman, Christian travellers [16]
    Modern era[edit]
    Muslim "relative majority"[edit]


    Henry Light, who visited Jerusalem in 1814, reported that Muslims comprised the largest portion of the 12,000 person population, but that Jews made the greatest single sect.[17] In 1818, Robert Richardson estimated the number of Jews to be 10,000, twice the number of Muslims.[18][19]


    Arab boys at Jerusalem YMCA, 1938.
    Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in
    1806 2,000 4,000 2,774 8,774 Ulrich Jasper Seetzen, Frisian explorer[20] Sharkansky, 1996[21][22]
    1815 4,000-5,000 ? ? 26,000 William Turner[23] Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]
    1817 3,000-4,000 13,000 3,250 19,750 Thomas R. Joliffe [24]
    1821 >4,000 8,000 James Silk Buckingham [25]
    1824 6,000 10,000 4,000 20,000 Fisk and King, Writers [26]
    1832 4,000 13,000 3,560 20,560 Ferdinand de Géramb, French monk Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]






    1838 3,000 4,500 3,500 11,500 Edward Robinson Edward Robinson, 1841[34]
    1844 7,120 5,000 3,390 15,510 Dr. Ernst-Gustav Schultz, Prussian consul[35]
    ]
    1846 7,515 6,100 3,558 17,173 Titus Tobler, Swiss explorer[36] Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]




    1849 2,084 families ? ? ? Moses Montefiore census[37] [ vete kta cifut deklarojne numrat ]
    1850 13,860 ? ? ? Dr. Ascher, Anglo-Jewish Association



    1850 630* 1,025* 738* 2,393* ? Alexander Scholch, 1985[38]
    1851 5,580 12,286' 7,488 25,354 Official census (only Ottoman citizens)[39] Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]

    1853 8,000 4,000 3,490 15,490 César Famin, French diplomat Famin[40] {parape diplomatete francez qe benin politikat e tyre]

    1856 5,700 10,300 3,000 18,000 Ludwig August von Frankl, Austrian writer Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]

    1857 7,000 ? ? 10-15,000 HaMaggid periodical Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]


    1862 8,000 6,000 3,800 17,800 HaCarmel periodical Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]

    1864 8,000 4,000 2,500 15,000 British Embassy Dore Gold, 2009[41] [nga amabasad angleze qe bente politiken e tyre]

    1866 8,000 4,000 4,000 16,000 John Murray travel guidebook Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]
    1867 ? ? ? 14,000 Mark Twain, Innocents Abroad, Chapter 52 [42]
    1867 4–5,000 6,000 ? ? Ellen-Clare Miller, Missionary [43]

    1869 3,200* n/a n/a n/a Rabbi H. J. Sneersohn New York Times[44] [ deklarohen vete numrat nga ciofutet]
    1869 9,000 5,000 4,000 18,000 Hebrew Christian Mutual Aid Society [45][46]
    1869 7,977 7,500 5,373 20,850 Liévin de Hamme, Franciscan missionary Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]
    1871 4,000 13,000 7,000 20,560 Karl Baedeker travel guidebook Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]
    1874 10,000 5,000 5,500 20,500 British consul in Jerusalem report to the House of Commons Parliamentary Papers [47]
    1876 4,000 13,000 3,560 20,560 Bernhard Neumann [48] Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001[22]
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 17-12-2016 mė 20:32

  7. #7
    i/e regjistruar Maska e SERAFIM DILO
    Anėtarėsuar
    06-01-2008
    Postime
    7,110

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Tani,po ti them se nga i mar i humb lezeti Wikit . Si do bejme pa Wikin pastaj ! ( Ne Jeruzalem kan qene shumice,jo ne Palestine o ne Sirine e Jugut siē quhej nga vete palestinezet....po ky eshte diskutim i gjate,qe nuk e permbledh Wiki,dalim jashte teme).

    Pronesia e tokes. (Keren Kajemeth Leisrael 1920-1948)

    Vitet. "Dunam"
    1920.22.363
    1922.72.361
    1924.131.045
    1926.177.879
    1928.202.091
    1930.278.627
    1932.296.910
    1934.341.556
    1936.371.541
    1938.491.271
    1940.515.590
    1942.610.391
    1944.745.013
    1946.872.747
    1948 (14 maj) 936.000

    Toke natyrisht e blere ne menyre te rregullt. 10 dunam=1 hektar.1000 dunam = 1 kilometer katror.

    Emigracioni,perpara krijimit te shtetit Izraelian.

    Viti. emigrantet. Perqindja e ne 1000 banor.

    1882-1917. 55-70.000 ---
    1919.1806 -32
    1920.8.223-135
    1921.8.294-115
    1922.8.685-104
    ....e me radhe..
    1926.13.855-93
    1927.3034-20
    1928.2.178-14
    1929.5.249-34
    ...e me radhe..
    1935.66.472-206
    ....
    1937.10.629-27
    .....
    1943.10.063-20
    1944.15.552-30
    1945.15.259-28
    1946.18.760-32
    1947.22.098-36
    1948.17.165-33.



    Ebrej ne vendet arabe. 1948 dhe sa kan mbetur deri nga vitet 1990
    Marok. 265.000. -20.000
    Algjeri.140.000 -500
    Tunizi.105.000 -6.000
    Libi.38.000 -20
    Egjipt.75.000-100
    Irak.135.000 -400
    Siri.30.000 -5.000
    Liban.50.000-3.000
    Yemeni Veriut.55.000 -100
    Yemeni Jugut.8.000 -0
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga SERAFIM DILO : 17-12-2016 mė 20:59

  8. #8
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Ca je duke thene ?
    Ca jane kto numra mer plak se kam nja dyzet here po te pyes te njejten gje nga corganizate botrore historike dhe gjeografike historike njihen kto nuimra se po me tgregon wikin edhe te tjerat?

    Keren Kayemet LeYisrael eshte organizat cifute, apo Jewish National Fund qe u formua per te bler tokat palestinize ottomane ne 1901.

    E zejme se isreali nuk pati konflikte dhe nuk beri ekspancjon ilegal perpara dhe ne kohet modrne ne vashdimsi kunder ligjeve te UN dhe ligjeve intrenacjonale.

    Nga i noxrre numrat e emirgimeve, ku bazohesh?

    Po ku po i nxjerr numrat e atyre si refrence historike dhe per te vertetuar popullsine dhe shtrirjen?

    Haha je i modh.
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 17-12-2016 mė 21:36

  9. #9
    i/e regjistruar Maska e SERAFIM DILO
    Anėtarėsuar
    06-01-2008
    Postime
    7,110

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Citim Postuar mė parė nga HFTengineer Lexo Postimin
    Ca je duke thene ?
    Ca jane kto numra mer plak se kam nja dyzet here po te pyes te njejten gje nga corganizate botrore historike dhe gjeografike historike njihen kto nuimra se po me tgregon wikin edhe te tjerat?

    Keren Kayemet LeYisrael eshte organizat cifute, apo Jewish National Fund qe u formua per te bler tokat palestinize ottomane ne 1901.
    E zejme se isreali nuk pati konflikte dhe nuk morri toke.

    Nga i noxrre numrat e emirgimeve, ku bazohesh?

    Po ku po i nxjerr mer numrat e atyre si refrence historike dhe per te vertetuar popullsine dhe shtrirjen?

    Haha je i modh.
    Po nga Wiki jan me ēun,nga Wiki i ka mar,pse nuk i ka Wiki keto !


    D. Catarivas,Izraele. Mondadori 1959.
    N.Garriba,Lo stato di Izraele Ed.Riuniti.
    S.Grayzel,Storia degli ebrei.Rome
    F.Cohen.Israele: quaran'anni di storia.
    Keren Kajemeth Leisrael,Israele uomo,terra,natura,Roma 1975.

    Ka dhe te tjera,po nuk kan rendesi...

  10. #10
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Citim Postuar mė parė nga SERAFIM DILO Lexo Postimin
    Po nga Wiki jan me ēun,nga Wiki i ka mar,pse nuk i ka Wiki keto !


    D. Catarivas,Izraele. Mondadori 1959.
    N.Garriba,Lo stato di Izraele Ed.Riuniti.
    S.Grayzel,Storia degli ebrei.Rome
    F.Cohen.Israele: quaran'anni di storia.
    Keren Kajemeth Leisrael,Israele uomo,terra,natura,Roma 1975.

    Ka dhe te tjera,po nuk kan rendesi...


    Si fillim .Mduket se ti nuk je duke lezuar.


    [QUOTE=HFTengineer;3825224]Jo vetem qe ska patur fakte historike te mirffilta, por si varjojn censjus dhe shume kouta te njerzve te ndryshem se varjojne qe jane inkonsitente me njera tjetren dhe rritjen nga cdo vit[/QUOTE=HFTengineer]

    E dyta e kupton qe cifutat kane jetuar dhe jasht jeuralemit para se te maret tuqria dhe kane qene te perhapur nepere siri yemen iran etj, dhe jo vetem qe ska qene shtet por judaismi kka qene fe dhe ehste ,dhe ka shume jo vetem qe skan linduar aty por dehje katra katra jyshrit kane lindur ne vendet perreth diku tjeter para 1400 vjetesh dhe vetem sa kan patur fene jehude/judsite:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yemenite_Jews

    Cifutete e yemenit:

    There are numerous accounts and legends concerning the arrival of Jews in various regions in Southern Arabia. One legend suggests that King Solomon sent Jewish merchant marines to Yemen to prospect for gold and silver with which to adorn his Temple in Jerusalem.[5] In 1881, the French vice consulate in Yemen wrote to the leaders of the Alliance (the Alliance Israelite Universelle) in France, that he read in a book by the Arab historian Abu-Alfada that the Jews of Yemen settled in the area in 1451 BC.[6] Another legend says that Yemeni tribes converted to Judaism after the Queen of Sheba's visit to king Solomon.[7] The Sanaite Jews have a legend that their ancestors settled in Yemen forty-two years before the destruction of the First Temple.[8] It is said that under the prophet Jeremiah some 75,000 Jews, including priests and Levites, traveled to Yemen.[9] Another legend states that when Ezra commanded the Jews to return to Jerusalem they disobeyed, whereupon he pronounced a ban upon them. According to this legend, as a punishment for this hasty action Ezra was denied burial in Israel. As a result of this local tradition, which can not be validated historically, it is said that no Jew of Yemen gives the name of Ezra to a child, although all other Biblical appellatives are used. The Yemenite Jews claim that Ezra cursed them to be a poor people for not heeding his call. This seems to have come true in the eyes of some Yemenites, as Yemen is extremely poor. However, some Yemenite sages in Israel today emphatically reject this story as myth, if not outright blasphemy.[10]

    Archaeological records referring to Judaism in Yemen started to appear during the rule of the Himyarite Kingdom, established in Yemen in 110 BC. Various inscription in Musnad script in the second century CE refer to constructions of synagogues approved by Himyarite Kings.[11] According to local legends, the kingdom's aristocracy converted to Judaism in the 6th century CE.[12] The Christian missionary, Theophilos, who came to Yemen in the mid-fourth century, complained that he had found great numbers of Jews.[13] By 380 A.D, Himyarites religious practices have undergone fundamental changes. The inscriptions were no longer addressed to El Maqah or 'Athtar, but to a single deity called Rahman. Debate among scholars continues as to whether the Himyarite monotheism was influenced by Judaism or Christianity.[14]

    Jews became especially numerous and powerful in the southern part of Arabia, a rich and fertile land of incense and spices and a way station on the routes to Africa, India, and East Asia. The Yemeni tribes did not oppose Jewish presence in their country.[15] By 516, tribal unrest broke out and several tribal elites fought for power. One of those elites was Joseph Dhu Nuwas or "Yūsuf ’As’ar Yaṯ’ar" as mentioned in ancient south Arabian inscriptions.[16] The actual story of Joseph is murky. Greek and Ethiopian accounts, portray him as a Jewish zealot.[17] Some scholars suggest that he was a converted Jew.[18] Nestorian accounts claim that his mother was a Jew taken captive from Nisibis and bought by a king in Yemen, whose ancestors had formerly converted to Judaism.[19] Syriac and Byzantine sources maintain that Yūsuf ’As’ar sought to convert other Yemeni Christians, but they refused to renounce Christianity. The actual picture, however, remains unclear.[17]

    Some scholars believe that Syriac sources reflected a great deal of hatred toward Jews.[20] In 2009 a BBC broadcast defended a claim that Yūsuf ’As’ar offered villagers the choice between conversion to Judaism or death and then massacred 20,000 Christians. The program's producers stated that, "The production team spoke to many historians over 18 months, among them Nigel Groom, who was our consultant, and Professor Abdul Rahman Al-Ansary [former professor of archaeology at the King Saud University in Riyadh]."[21] Inscriptions attributed to Yūsuf ’As’ar himself show the great pride he expressed after killing more than 22,000 Christians in Ẓafār and Najran.[22] According to Jamme, Sabaean inscriptions reveal that the combined war booty (excluding deaths) from campaigns waged against the Abyssinians in Ẓafār, the fighters in ’Ašʻarān, Rakbān, Farasān, Muḥwān (Mocha), and the fighters and military units in Najran, amounted to 12,500 war trophies, 11,000 captives and 290,000 camels and bovines and sheep.[16]

    Historian Glen Bowersock described this as a "savage pogrom that the Jewish king of the Arabs launched against the Christians in the city of Najran. The king himself reported in excruciating detail to his Arab and Persian allies about the massacres he had inflicted on all Christians who refused to convert to Judaism."[23] There were also reports of massacres and destruction of places of worship by Christians too.[24] Francis Edward Peters wrote that while there is no doubt that this was a religious persecution, it is equally clear that a political struggle was going on as well.[25] It is likely that Dhu Nuwas was a leader of a liberation movement seeking to free Yemen from an increasing foreign meddling in the nation's affairs, and Judaism became a vital element in the resistance.[17]

    According to ‘Irfan Shahid’s Martyrs of Najran – New Documents, Dhu-Nuwas sent an army of some 120,000 soldiers to lay siege to the city of Najran, which siege lasted for six months, and the city taken and burnt on the 15th day of the seventh month (i.e. the lunar month Tishri). The city had revolted against the king and they refused to deliver it up unto the king. About three-hundred of the city’s inhabitants surrendered to the king’s forces, under the assurances of an oath that no harm would come to them, and these were later bound, while those remaining in the city were burnt alive within their church. The death toll in this account is said to have reached about two-thousand. However, in the Sabaean inscriptions describing these events, it is reported that by the month Dhu-Madra'an (between July and September) there were “1000 killed, 1500 prisoners [taken] and 10,000 head of cattle.”[26]

    There are two dates mentioned in the “letter of Simeon of Beit Aršam.” One date indicates the letter was written in Tammuz in the year 830 of Alexander (518/519 CE), from the camp of GBALA (Jebala), king of the ‘SNYA (Ghassanids or the Ġassān clan). In it he tells of the events that transpired in Najran, while the other date puts the letter’s composition in the year 835 of Alexander (523/524 CE). The second letter, however, is actually a Syriac copy of the original, copied in the year 1490 of the Seleucid Era (= 1178/79 CE). Today, it is largely agreed that the latter date is the accurate one, as it is confirmed by the Martyrium Arethae, as well as by epigraphic records, namely Sabaean inscriptions discovered in the Asir of Saudi-Arabia (Bi’r Ḥimā), photographed by J. Ryckmans in Ry 507, 8 ~ 9, and by A. Jamme in Ja 1028, which give the old Sabaean year 633 for these operations (said to correspond with 523 CE).
    \





    c. 250 CE Jewish elder from Yemen (Himyar) brought for internment in Beit She'arim, burial site of Rabbi Yehudah Ha-Nassi.[47][48]
    470–77 Jews from Yemen (Himyar) brought to burial in Zoara.[49]
    524 Jewish king, Yūsuf ’As’ar Yath'ar, known also in the Islamic tradition as Dhū Nuwās, lays siege to the city Najran and takes it.[50]
    1165 Benjamin of Tudela, in his Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, mentions two Jewish brothers, one who lives in Tilmas (i.e. Sa’dah of Yemen), who traced their lineage to king David[51]
    1174 Maimonides writes his Iggeret Teman (Episte to Yemen) to the Jews of Yemen[37][52]
    c. 1230 Jews of Yemen send thirteen questions to Rabbi Abraham ben Maimonides, relating to halacha[53]
    1346 Rabbi Yehoshua Hanagid carries on a correspondence with Rabbi David b. Amram al-Adeni, the leader of the Jewish community in Yemen, in which more that 100 Questions & Responsa are exchanged between them.[54]
    1457 Old Synagogue in Ṣanʻā’ destroyed because of warring between Imam Al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar and Az-Zafir ʻAmir I bin Ṭāhir [55]
    1489 Rabbi Obadiah di Bertinora encounters Jews from Yemen while in Jerusalem.[56]
    1567 Zechariah (Yaḥya) al-Ḍāhirī visited Rabbi Joseph Karo's yeshiva in Safed[57]
    1666 Decree of the Headgear (Ar. al-‘amā’im ) in which Jews were forbidden by an edict to wear turbans (pl. ‘amā’im) on their heads from that time forward[58]
    1679–80 the Exile of Mawzaʻ[59]
    1761 Destruction of twelve synagogues in Ṣanʻā’ by Imam Al-Mahdi Abbas[60]
    1763 Carsten Niebuhr visits Yemen, describing his visit with the Jews of Yemen in book, Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien und andern umliegenden Ländern (Description of Travel to Arabia and Other Neighboring Countries)[61]



    Cifutete e irakut

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karaite_Judaism



    Anan ben David (Hebrew: ענן בן דוד‎‎, c. 715 – 795 or 811?) is widely considered to be a major founder of the Karaite movement. His followers were called Ananites; they did not believe the Rabbinical oral law was divinely inspired.

    According to a 12th-century Rabbinist account, in approximately 760, Shelomoh ben Ḥisdai II, the Jewish exilarch in Babylon died, and two brothers among his nearest kin, ‘Anan ben David (whose name according to the Rabbinist account was ‘Anan ben Shafaṭ, but was called ben David due to his Davidic lineage) and Ḥananyah, were next in order of succession. Eventually Ḥananyah was elected by the rabbis of the Babylonian Jewish colleges (the Geonim) and by the notables of the chief Jewish congregations, and the choice was confirmed by the Caliph of Baghdad.

    A schism may have occurred, with ‘Anan Ben David being proclaimed exilarch by his followers. However, not all scholars agree that this event occurred. Leon Nemoy notes,[14] "Natronai, scarcely ninety years after ‘Anan's secession, tells us nothing about his aristocratic (Davidic) descent or about the contest for the office of exilarch which allegedly served as the immediate cause of his apostasy."[15] He later notes that Natronai — a devout Rabbinite Jew — lived where ‘Anan's activities took place, and that the Karaite sage Ya‘akov Al-Qirqisani never mentioned ‘Anan's purported lineage or candidacy for exilarch.[15]

    Anan's allowing his followers to proclaim him as Exilarch was considered treason by the Muslim government.[citation needed] He was sentenced to death, but his life was saved by his fellow prisoner, Abu Hanifa, the founder of the madhhab or school of jurisprudence known as the Hanafi. Ultimately he and his followers were permitted to migrate to Palestine. They erected a synagogue in Jerusalem that continued to be maintained until the time of the Crusades. From this center, the sect diffused thinly over Syria, spread into Egypt, and ultimately reached S.E. Europe.[16]

    Ben David challenged the Rabbinist establishment. Some scholars believe that his followers may have absorbed Jewish Babylonian sects such as the Isunians[17] (followers of Abu Isa), Yudghanites,[18] and the remnants of the pre-Talmudic Sadducees and Boethusians. Later, sects such as the Ukbarites emerged separately from the Ananites.

    However, the Isunians, Yudghanites, ‘Ukabarites, and Mishawites all held views that did not accord with those of either the ‘Ananites or the Karaites. Abu ‘Isa al-Isfahani, who was an illiterate tailor, claimed to be a prophet, prohibited divorce, claimed that all months should have thirty days, believed in Jesus and Muhammad as prophets, and told his followers that they must study the New Testament and the Qur’an. Yudghan was a follower of ‘Isa al-Isfahani and claimed to be a prophet and the Messiah, saying that the observance of Shabbat and Holy Days was no longer obligatory. Isma‘’il al-‘Ukbari believed he was the prophet Elijah, and hated ‘Anan. Mishawayh al-‘Ukbari, who was a disciple of Isma‘’il al-‘Ukbari and the founder of the Mishawites, taught his followers to use a purely solar calendar of 364 days and 30-day months, insisting that all the Holy Days and fast days should always occur on fixed days in the week, rather than on fixed days of the months. He further said that Shabbat should be kept from sunrise on Saturday to sunrise on Sunday. Most Ananites and Karaites rejected such beliefs.

    Anan developed his movement's core tenets. His Sefer HaMiṣwot ("The Book of the Commandments") was published about 770. He adopted many principles and opinions of other anti-rabbinic forms of Judaism that had previously existed. He took much from the old Sadducees and Essenes, whose remnants still survived, and whose writings—or at least writings ascribed to them—were still in circulation. Thus, for example, these older sects prohibited the burning of any lights and the leaving of one's dwelling on the Sabbath. Unlike the Sadducees, ‘Anan and the Qumran sectaries allowed persons to leave their house, but prohibited leaving one's town or camp. ‘Anan said that one should not leave one's house for frivolous things, but only to go to prayer or to study scripture. The Sadducees required the observation of the new moon to establish the dates of festivals and always held the Pentecost festival on a Sunday.

    The Golden Age[edit]


    n the "Golden Age of Karaism" (900–1100) a large number of Karaite works were produced in all parts of the Muslim world. Karaite Jews were able to obtain autonomy from Rabbinite Judaism in the Muslim world and establish their own institutions. Karaites in the Muslim world also obtained high social positions such as tax collectors, doctors, and clerks, and even received special positions in the Egyptian courts. Karaite scholars were among the most conspicuous practitioners in the philosophical school known as Jewish Kalam.

    According to historian Salo Wittmayer Baron, at one time the number of Jews affiliating with Karaism was as much as 40 percent of world Jewry, and debates between Rabbinist and Karaite leaders were not uncommon.

    Most notable among the opposition to Karaite thought and practice at this time are the writings of Rabbi Saadia Gaon, which eventually led to a permanent split between some Karaite and Rabbinite communities.





    Pra te vjn sterlengu i perzjere qe ska jetuar fare aty dhe katra -katragjyshrat e tyre qene ka ndjekur ose kjane konventuar ne judaism

    http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/news/.premium-1.551825

    aty te kerkoj tokat mbas 1400 vjetesh e di cdo te thote.



    I bie qe serbia qe eshte ortodoxe ti kerkoj tokat turve qe ja ka marre greqise para 1400 vjetve.
    Si do ta gjesh ti kush ka emigruar, ksuh ka lindur ne jerusalem dhe kush eshte konvertuar dhe si mund te kerkojn shtete kur skan pas shtete para se ta marrte turiqia dhe jetonin te perhapur ne azi?





    Tjeter gje:



    Ashkenazi Jews in Israel refers to immigrants and descendants of Ashkenazi Jews, who now reside within the state of Israel, in the modern sense also referring to Israeli Jewish adherents of the Ashkenazi Jewish tradition. They number 2.8 million (full or partial Ashkenazi Jewish descent)[1][2] and constitute one of the largest Jewish subethnic communities in Israel, in line with Mizrahi Jews and Sephardi Jews.

    Ashkenazi Jews descended from local Jewish communities of the Central and Eastern Europe, as opposed to those from Middle East and North Africa, Africa and other places.

    Contents [hide]
    1 History
    2 Notable people
    3 See also
    4 References
    History[edit]
    [icon] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2015)
    In Israel, the term Ashkenazi is now used in a manner unrelated to its original meaning, often applied to all Jews who settled in Europe and sometimes including those whose ethnic background is actually Sephardic. Jews of any non-Ashkenazi background, including Mizrahi, Yemenite, Kurdish and others who have no connection with the Iberian Peninsula, have similarly come to be lumped together as Sephardic. Jews of mixed background are increasingly common, partly because of intermarriage between Ashkenazi and Sephardi/Mizrahi, and partly because many do not see such historic markers as relevant to their life experiences as Jews.[3]

    Religious Ashkenazi Jews living in Israel are obliged to follow the authority of the chief Ashkenazi rabbi in halakhic matters. In this respect, a religiously Ashkenazi Jew is an Israeli who is more likely to support certain religious interests in Israel, including certain political parties. These political parties result from the fact that a portion of the Israeli electorate votes for Jewish religious parties; although the electoral map changes from one election to another, there are generally several small parties associated with the interests of religious Ashkenazi Jews. The role of religious parties, including small religious parties that play important roles as coalition members, results in turn from Israel's composition as a complex society in which competing social, economic, and religious interests stand for election to the Knesset, a unicameral legislature with 120 seats.[4]

    People of Ashkenazi Jewish descent constitute around 47.5% of Israeli Jews (and therefore 35–36% of Israelis).[2] They have played a prominent role in the economy, media, and politics[5] of Israel since its founding. During the first decades of Israel as a state, strong cultural conflict occurred between Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews (mainly east European Ashkenazim). The roots of this conflict, which still exists to a much smaller extent in present-day Israeli society, are chiefly attributed to the concept of the "melting pot".[6] That is to say, all Jewish immigrants who arrived in Israel were strongly encouraged to "melt down" their own particular exilic identities within the general social "pot" in order to become Israeli.[7]





    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Israel

    From Europe, America and Oceania by own or paternal country of origin: 1,939,400 35.11%
    Russia/USSR 923,600 47.62%
    Poland 198,500 10.23%
    Romania 213,100 10.98%
    Other Europe 61,100 3.15%
    USA/Canada/Australia/NZ 149,200 7.69%
    Germany/Austria 49,700 2.56%
    Bulgaria/Greece 48,900 2.52%
    South America 100,600 5.18%
    Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia 64,900 3.34%
    France 63,200 3.25%
    UK 39,800 2.05%
    From Africa by paternal country of origin: 859,100 15.53%
    Morocco 486,600 56.64%
    Algeria and Tunisia 120,600 14.03%
    Libya 67,400 7.84%
    Egypt 55,800 6.49%
    Ethiopia 106,900 12.44%
    Others 17,200 2.00%
    From Asia by own or paternal country of origin: 681,400 12.33%
    Turkey 76,900 11.28%
    Iraq 233,500 34.26%
    Yemen 138,300 20.29%
    Iran 134,700 19.76%
    India/Pakistan 45,600 6.69%
    Syria and Lebanon 35,300 5.18%
    Other Asia 17,200 2.52%
    Father born in Israel 2,043,800 37%



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliyah


    1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1948-53
    Eastern Europe
    Romania 17678 13595 47041 40625 3712 61 122712
    Poland 28788 47331 25071 2529 264 225 104208
    Bulgaria 15091 20008 1000 1142 461 359 38061
    Czechoslovakia 2115 15685 263 150 24 10 18247
    Hungary 3463 6842 2302 1022 133 224 13986
    Soviet Union 1175 3230 2618 689 198 216 8126
    Yugoslavia 4126 2470 427 572 88 14 7697
    Total 72436 109161 78722 46729 4880 1109 313037
    Western Europe
    Germany 1422 5329 1439 662 142 100 9094
    France 640 1653 1165 548 227 117 4350
    Austria 395 1618 746 233 76 45 3113
    Great Britain 501 756 581 302 233 140 2513
    Greece 175 1364 343 122 46 71 2121
    Italy 530 501 242 142 95 37 1547
    Holland 188 367 265 282 112 95 1309
    Belgium - 615 297 196 51 44 1203
    Total 3851 12203 5078 2487 982 649 25250
    Asia
    Iraq 15 1708 31627 88161 868 375 122754
    Yemen 270 35422 9203 588 89 26 45598
    Turkey 4362 26295 2323 1228 271 220 34699
    Iran 43 1778 11935 11048 4856 1096 30756
    Aden - 2636 190 328 35 58 3247
    India 12 856 1105 364 49 650 3036
    China - 644 1207 316 85 160 2412
    Other - 1966 931 634 230 197 3958
    Total 4702 71305 58521 102667 6483 2782 246460
    Africa
    Tunisia 6821 17353 3725 3414 2548 606 34467
    Libya 1064 14352 8818 6534 1146 224 32138
    Morocco - - 4980 7770 5031 2990 20771
    Egypt - 7268 7154 2086 1251 1041 18800
    Algeria - - 506 272 92 84 954
    South Africa 178 217 154 35 11 33 628
    Other - 382 5 6 3 9 405
    Total 8063 39572 25342 20117 10082 4987 108163
    Unknown 13827 10942 1742 1901 948 820 30180
    All countries 102879 243183 169405 173901 23375 10347 723090




    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliyah


    The number of immigrants since 1882 by period, continent of birth, and country of birth is given in the table below. Continent of birth and country of birth data is almost always unavailable or nonexistent for before 1919.[51][96]

    Region/Country 1882–
    1918 1919–
    1948 1948–
    1951 1952–
    1960 1961–
    1971 1972–
    1979 1980–
    1989 1990–
    2001 2002–
    2010 2011–
    2012 Total
    Afghanistan 0 2,303 1,106 516 132 57 21 13 4,148
    Africa 4,033 93,282 143,485 164,885 19,273 28,664 55,619 31,558 6,627 547,426
    Albania 0 0 5 8 0 0 376 0 389
    Algeria 994 3,810 3,433 12,857 2,137 1,830 1,682 1,967 324 29,034
    Americas and Oceania 7,579 3,822 6,922 42,400 45,040 39,369 39,662 36,209 221,003
    Argentina 238 904 2,888 11,701 13,158 10,582 11,248 9,450 60,169
    Asia 40,776 237,704 37,119 56,208 19,456 14,433 75,687 17,300 498,683
    Australia 0 116 107 742 1,146 835 977 524 4,447
    Austria 7,748 2,632 610 1,021 595 356 368 150 13,480
    Belgium 0 291 394 1,112 847 788 1,053 873 5,358
    Bolivia 0 0 0 199 94 80 53 84 510
    Brazil 0 304 763 2,601 1,763 1,763 2,356 2,037 11,587
    Bulgaria 7,057 37,260 1,680 794 118 180 3,999 341 51,429
    Burma 0 0 0 147 83 383 138 33 784
    Canada 316 236 276 2,169 2,178 1,867 1,963 1,700 10,705
    Central America (other countries which are not specifically mentioned here) 0 17 43 129 104 8 153 157 611
    Chile 0 48 401 1,790 1,180 1,040 683 589 5,731
    China 0 504 217 96 43 78 277 74 1,289
    Colombia 0 0 0 415 552 475 657 965 3,064
    Cuba 0 14 88 405 79 42 629 606 1,863
    Cyprus 0 21 35 28 21 12 32 0 149
    Czechoslovakia 16,794 18,788 783 2,754 888 462 527 217 41,213
    Denmark 0 27 46 298 292 411 389 85 1,548
    Ecuador 0 0 0 40 38 44 67 69 258
    Egypt and Sudan 0 16,028 17,521 2,963 535 372 202 166 21 37,808
    Ethiopia, Eritrea and Abyssinia 0 10 59 98 309 16,971 45,131 23,613 5,097 91,288
    Europe 377,487 332,802 106,305 162,070 183,419 70,898 888,603 96,165 2,217,749
    Finland 0 9 20 172 184 222 212 33 852
    France 1,637 3,050 1,662 8,050 5,399 7,538 11,986 13,062 52,384
    Germany 52,951 8,210 1,386 3,175 2,080 1,759 2,442 866 72,869
    Greece 8,767 2,131 676 514 326 147 127 48 12,736
    Hungary 10,342 14,324 9,819 2,601 1,100 1,005 2,444 730 42,365
    India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka 0 2,176 5,380 13,110 3,497 1,539 2,055 961 28,718
    Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines 0 101 46 54 40 60 205 42 548
    Iran 3,536 21,910 15,699 19,502 9,550 8,487 4,326 1,097 84,107
    Iraq 0 123,371 2,989 2,129 939 111 1,325 130 130,994
    Ireland 0 14 46 145 157 233 136 54 785
    Israel 0 411 868 1,021 507 288 1,148 1,448 5,691
    Italy 1,554 1,305 414 940 713 510 656 389 6,481
    Japan 0 0 9 25 34 57 98 32 255
    Jordan 0 6 9 23 6 9 15 0 68
    Lebanon 0 235 846 2,208 564 179 96 34 4,162
    Libya 873 30,972 2,079 2,466 219 67 94 36 5 36,811
    Luxembourg 0 30 15 15 7 12 0 4 83
    Mexico 0 48 168 736 861 993 1,049 697 4,552
    Mongolia, South Korea, and North Korea 0 0 0 4 5 10 100 36 155
    Morocco 0 28,263 95,945 130,507 7,780 3,809 3,276 2,113 384 272,077
    Netherlands 1,208 1,077 646 1,470 1,170 1,239 997 365 8,172
    New Zealand 70 0 13 91 129 124 142 42 611
    Norway 0 17 14 36 55 126 120 19 387
    Not known 52,982 20,014 3,307 2,265 392 469 422 0 79,851
    Other (Africa) 1,907 203 83 500 148 16 318 85 24 3,284
    Other (Americas/Oceania) 318 313 0 148 3 8 44 12 846
    Other (Asia) 13,125 947 0 60 21 45 205 30 14,433
    Other (Europe) 2,329 1,281 3 173 32 0 198 93 4,109
    Panama 0 0 0 64 43 48 50 40 245
    Peru 0 0 0 269 243 358 612 1,539 3,021
    Poland 170,127 106,414 39,618 14,706 6,218 2,807 3,064 764 343,718
    Portugal 0 16 22 66 56 55 47 28 290
    Romania 41,105 117,950 32,462 86,184 18,418 14,607 6,254 711 317,691
    Saudi Arabia 0 177 0 4 0 5 0 0 186
    South Africa 259 666 774 3,783 5,604 3,575 3,283 1,693 373 20,010
    South America (other countries which are not specifically mentioned here) 0 42 194 89 62 0 66 96 549
    Soviet Union (Asia)[a] 61,988 12,422 74,410
    Soviet Union (Europe) 47,500[99][b] 52,350 8,163 13,743 29,376 137,134 29,754 844,139 72,520 1,234,679
    Spain 0 80 169 406 327 321 269 178 1,750
    Sweden 0 32 51 378 372 419 424 160 1,836
    Switzerland 0 131 253 886 634 706 981 585 4,176
    Syria 0 2,678 1,870 0 0 0 1,664 23 6,235
    Total 62,500[100][c] 482,857 687,624 297,138 427,828 267,580 153,833 1,059,993 181,233 3,620,586
    Tunisia 0 13,293 23,569 11,566 2,148 1,942 1,607 1,871 398 56,394
    Turkey 8,277 34,547 6,871 14,073 3,118 2,088 1,311 817 71,102
    United Kingdom 1,574 1,907 1,448 6,461 6,171 7,098 5,365 3,725 33,749
    United States 2,000[97] 6,635 1,711 1,553 18,671 20,963 18,904 17,512 15,445 103,394
    Uruguay 0 66 425 1,844 2,199 2,014 983 1,555 9,086
    Venezuela 0 0 0 297 245 180 418 602 1,742
    Yemen 2,600[98] 15,838 48,315 1,170 1,066 51 17 683 103 69,843
    Yugoslavia 1,944 7,661 320 322 126 140 2,029 162 12,704
    Zimbabwe 0 37 22 145 393 82 26 14 N/A 719



    Aliyah from the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states
    Main articles: Russian immigration to Israel in the 1970s, Russian immigration to Israel in the 1990s, and Jackson–Vanik amendment
    See also: Russian Jews in Israel and Georgian Jews in Israel

    Soviet authorities break up a demonstration of Jewish refuseniks in front of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the right to immigrate to Israel, January 10, 1973[37]
    A mass emigration was politically undesirable for the Soviet regime. The only acceptable ground was family reunification, and a formal petition ("вызов", vyzov) from a relative from abroad was required for the processing to begin. Often, the result was a formal refusal. The risks to apply for an exit visa compounded because the entire family had to quit their jobs, which in turn would make them vulnerable to charges of social parasitism, a criminal offense. Because of these hardships, Israel set up the group Lishkat Hakesher in the early 1950s to maintain contact and promote aliyah with Jews behind the Iron Curtain.

    From Israel's establishment in 1948 to the Six-Day War in 1967, Soviet aliyah remained minimal. Those who made aliyah during this period were mainly elderly people granted clearance to leave for family reunification purposes. Only about 22,000 Soviet Jews managed to reach Israel. In the wake of the Six-Day War, the USSR broke off the diplomatic relations with the Jewish state. An Anti-Zionist propaganda campaign in the state-controlled mass media and the rise of Zionology were accompanied by harsher discrimination of the Soviet Jews. By the end of the 1960s, Jewish cultural and religious life in the Soviet Union had become practically impossible, and the majority of Soviet Jews were assimilated and non-religious, but this new wave of state-sponsored anti-Semitism on one hand, and the sense of pride for victorious Jewish nation over Soviet-armed Arab armies on the other, stirred up Zionist feelings.

    After the Dymshits-Kuznetsov hijacking affair and the crackdown that followed, strong international condemnations caused the Soviet authorities to increase the emigration quota. In the years 1960–1970, the USSR let only 4,000 people leave; in the following decade, the number rose to 250,000.[38] The exodus of Soviet Jews began in 1968.[39]

    Year Exit visas
    to Israel Immigrants from
    the USSR[38]
    1968 231 231
    1969 3,033 3,033
    1970 999 999
    1971 12,897 12,893
    1972 31,903 31,652
    1973 34,733 33,277
    1974 20,767 16,888
    1975 13,363 8,435
    1976 14,254 7,250
    1977 16,833 8,350
    1978 28,956 12,090
    1979 51,331 17,278
    1980 21,648 7,570
    1981 9,448 1,762
    1982 2,692 731
    1983 1,314 861
    1984 896 340
    1985 1,140 348
    1986 904 201
    Between 1968 and 1973, almost all Soviet Jews allowed to leave settled in Israel, and only a small minority moved to other Western countries. However, in the following years, the number of those moving to other Western nations increased.[39] Soviet Jews granted permission to leave were taken by train to Austria to be processed and then flown to Israel. There, the ones who chose not to go to Israel, called "dropouts", exchanged their immigrant invitations to Israel for refugee status in a Western country, especially the United States. Eventually, most Soviet Jews granted permission to leave became dropouts. In 1989 a record 71,000 Soviet Jews were granted exodus from the USSR, of whom only 12,117 immigrated to Israel.

    According to Israeli Immigrant Absorption Minister Yaakov Zur, over half of Soviet Jewish dropouts who immigrated to the United States assimilated and ceased to live as Jews within a short period of time.[40]

    Israel was concerned over the dropout rate, and suggested that Soviet emigres be flown directly to Israel from the Soviet Union or Romania. Israel argued that it needed highly skilled and well-educated Soviet Jewish immigrants for its survival. In addition to contributing to the country's economic development, Soviet immigration was also seen as a counterweight to the high fertility rate among Israeli-Arabs.[39] In addition, Israel was concerned that the dropout rate could result in immigration being banned once again. The Ministry of Immigrant Absorption's position was that "it could jeopardize the whole program if Jews supposedly going to Israel all wind up in Brooklyn and Los Angeles. How will the Soviets explain to their own people that it's just Jews who are allowed to emigrate to the U.S.?"[40]

    In 1989 the United States changed its immigration policy of unconditionally granting Soviet Jews refugee status. That same year, Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev ended restrictions on Jewish immigration, and the Soviet Union itself collapsed in 1991. Since then, about a million Russians immigrated to Israel,[41] including approximately 240,000 who were not Jewish according to rabbinical law, but were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return.

    The number of non-Jews among the immigrants from the former USSR has been constantly rising ever since 1989. For example, in 1990 around 96% of the immigrants were Jews and only 4% were non-Jewish family members. However, in 2000, the proportion was: Jews (includes children from non-Jewish father and Jewish mother) - 47%, Non-Jewish spouses of Jews - 14%, children from Jewish father and non-Jewish mother - 17%, Non-Jewish spouses of children from Jewish father and non-Jewish mother - 6%, non-Jews with a Jewish grandparent - 14% & Non-Jewish spouses of non-Jews with a Jewish grandparent - 2%.[42]

    Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Ukrainian Jews making aliyah from the Ukraine reached 142% higher during the first four months of 2014 compared to the previous year.[43][44][45] In 2014, aliyah from the former Soviet Union went up 50% from the previous year with some 11,430 people or approximately 43% of all Jewish immigrants arrived from the former Soviet Union, propelled from the increase from Ukraine with some 5,840 new immigrants have come from Ukraine over the course of the year.[46][47]


    Russophone shop in Haifa
    Aliyah from Latin America
    Main article: Aliyah from Latin America in the 2000s
    See also: Argentine Jews in Israel
    In the 1999–2002 Argentine political and economic crisis that caused a run on the banks, wiped out billions of dollars in deposits and decimated Argentina's middle class, most of the country's estimated 200,000 Jews were directly affected. Some 4,400 chose to start over and move to Israel, where they saw opportunity.

    More than 10,000 Argentine Jews immigrated to Israel since 2000, joining the thousands of previous Argentine immigrants already there. The crisis in Argentina also affected its neighbour country Uruguay, from which about half of its 40,000-strong Jewish community left, mainly to Israel, in the same period. During 2002 and 2003 the Jewish Agency for Israel launched an intensive public campaign to promote aliyah from the region, and offered additional economic aid for immigrants from Argentina. Although the economy of Argentina improved, and some who had immigrated to Israel from Argentina moved back following South American country's economic growth from 2003 onwards, Argentine Jews continue to immigrate to Israel, albeit in smaller numbers than before. The Argentine community in Israel is about 50,000-70,000 people, the largest Latin American group in the country.

    There has also been immigration from other Latin American countries that have experienced crises, though they have come in smaller numbers and are not eligible for the same economic benefits as immigrants to Israel from Argentina.

    In Venezuela, growing antisemitism in the country, including antisemitic violence, caused an increasing number of Jews to move to Israel during the 2000s. For the first time in Venezuelan history, Jews began leaving for Israel in the hundreds. By November 2010, more than half of Venezuela's 20,000-strong Jewish community had left the country.[48][49]

    Aliyah from France
    See also: History of the Jews in France and French Jews in Israel
    Part of a series on
    Jewish outreach
    Denominations
    Orthodox
    Modern Orthodox
    Chabad
    (Noahide campaign)
    Other topics
    Conservative outreach
    Reform outreach
    Conversion to Judaism
    Baal teshuva movement
    Aliyah
    v t e
    From 2000 to 2009, more than 13,000 French Jews immigrated to Israel, largely as a result of growing anti-semitism in the country. A peak was reached in 2005, with 2,951 immirgants. However, between 20–30% eventually returned to France.[50] After the election of Nicolas Sarkozy, French aliyah dropped due to the Jewish community's comfort with him. In 2010 only 1,286 French Jews made aliyah.[51]

    By 2012, some 200,000 French citizens live in Israel.[52] During the same year, following the election of Franēois Hollande and the Jewish school shooting in Toulouse, as well as ongoing acts of anti-semitism and the European economic crisis, an increasing number of French Jews began buying property in Israel.[53] In August 2012, it was reported that anti-semitic attacks had risen by 40% in the five months following the Toulouse shooting, and that many French Jews were seriously considering immigrating to Israel.[54] In 2013, 3,120 French Jews immigrated to Israel, marking a 63% increase over the previous year.[55] In the first two months of 2014, French Jewish aliyah increased precipitously by 312% with 854 French Jews making aliyah over the first two months. Immigration from France throughout 2014 has been attributed to several factors, of which includes increasing antisemitism, in which many Jews have been harassed and attacked by a fusillade of local thugs and gangs, a stagnant European economy and concomitant high youth unemployment rates.[56][57][58][59]

    During the first few months of 2014, The Jewish Agency of Israel has continued to encourage an increase of French aliyah through aliyah fairs, Hebrew-language courses, sessions which help potential immigrants to find jobs in Israel, and immigrant absorption in Israel.[60] A May 2014 survey revealed that 74 percent of French Jews consider leaving France for Israel where of the 74 percent, 29.9 percent cited anti-Semitism. Another 24.4 cited their desire to “preserve their Judaism,” while 12.4 percent said they were attracted by other countries. “Economic considerations” was cited by 7.5 percent of the respondents.[61] By June 2014, it was estimated by the end of 2014 a full 1 percent of the French Jewish community will have made aliyah to Israel, the largest in a single year. Many Jewish leaders stated the emigration is being driven by a combination of factors, including the cultural gravitation towards Israel and France’s economic woes, especially for the younger generation drawn by the possibility of other socioeconomic opportunities in the more vibrant Israeli economy.[62][63] During the Hebrew year 5774 (September 2013 - September 2014) for the first time ever, more Jews made Aliyah from France than any other country, with approximately 6,000 French Jews making aliyah, mainly fleeing rampant antisemitism, pro-Palestinian and anti-Zionist violence and economic malaise with France becoming the top sending country for aliyah as of late September 2014.[64][65]

    In January 2015, events such as the Charlie Hebdo shooting and Porte de Vincennes hostage crisis created a shock wave of fear across the French Jewish community. As a result of these events, the Jewish Agency planned an aliyah plan for 120,000 French Jews who wish to make aliyah.[66][67] In addition, with Europe's stagnant economy as of early 2015, many affluent French Jewish skilled professionals, businesspeople and investors have sought Israel as a start-up haven for international investments, as well as job and new business opportunities.[68] In addition, Dov Maimon, a French Jewish émigré who studies migration as a senior fellow at the Jewish People Policy Institute, expects as many as 250,000 French Jews to make aliyah by the year 2030.[68]

    Hours after an attack and an ISIS flag was raised on a gas factory near Lyon where the severed head of a local businessman was pinned to the gates on June 26, 2015, Immigration and Absorption Minister Ze’ev Elkin strongly urged the French Jewish community to move to Israel and made it a national priority for Israel to welcome the French Jewish community with open arms.[69][70] Immigration from France is on the rise: in the first half of 2015, approximately 5,100 French Jews made aliyah to Israel marking 25% more than in the same period during the previous year when about 7,000 made aliyah during all of 2014, indicating that about 10,000 should be expected for the full year of 2015.[71][72]

    With the November 2015 Paris attacks committed by suspected ISIS affiliates in retaliation for Opération Chammal, more than 80 percent of French Jews are considering making aliyah as much of the French populace realize that not just Jews but French people in general are now indiscriminate targets of jihadist terrorism.[73][74][75] According to the Jewish Agency, nearly 6500 French Jews have made aliyah as of mid November 2015 and it is estimated that 8000 French Jews will settle down in Israel by the end of 2015.[76][77][78]


    Aliyah from North America
    See also: History of the Jews in the United States and History of the Jews in Canada

    Nefesh B'Nefesh group welcomes North American immigrants to Israel
    More than 200,000 North American immigrants live in Israel. There has been a steady flow of immigration from North America since Israel’s inception in 1948.[79][80]

    Several thousand American Jews moved to Mandate Palestine before the State of Israel was established. From Israel's establishment in 1948 to the Six-Day War in 1967, aliyah from the United States and Canada was minimal. In the 1950s, 6,000 North American Jews arrived in Israel, of whom all but 1,000 returned.

    Record numbers arrived in the late 1960s after the Six-Day War, and in the 1970s. Between 1967 and 1973, 60,000 North American Jews immigrated to Israel. However, many of them later returned to their original countries.[81][82]

    Like Western European immigrants, North Americans tend to immigrate to Israel more for religious, ideological, and political purposes, and not financial or security ones.[83] Many immigrants began arriving in Israel after the First and Second Intifada, with a total of 3,052 arriving in 2005 — the highest number since 1983.[84]

    Nefesh B'Nefesh, founded in 2002 by Rabbi Yehoshua Fass and Tony Gelbart, works to encourage Aliyah from North America and the UK by providing financial assistance, employment services and streamlined governmental procedures. Nefesh B’Nefesh works in cooperation with the Jewish Agency and the Israeli Government in increasing the numbers of North American and British immigrants.

    Following the Global Financial Crisis in the late 2000s, American Jewish immigration to Israel rose. This wave of immigration was triggered by Israel's lower unemployment rate, combined with financial incentives offered to new Jewish immigrants. In 2009, aliyah was at its highest in 36 years, with 3,324 North American Jews making aliyah.[85]

    Since the 1990s

    New immigrants in Ben Gurion airport in Israel, 2007
    Since the mid-1990s, there has been a steady stream of South African Jews, American Jews, and French Jews who have either made aliyah, or purchased property in Israel for potential future immigration. Over 2,000 French Jews moved to Israel each year between 2000 and 2004 due to anti-Semitism in France.[86] The Bnei Menashe Jews from India, whose recent discovery and recognition by mainstream Judaism as descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes is subject to some controversy, slowly started their Aliyah in the early 1990s and continue arriving in slow numbers.[87] Organizations such as Nefesh B'Nefesh and Shavei Israel help with aliyah by supporting financial aid and guidance on a variety of topics such as finding work, learning Hebrew, and assimilation into Israeli culture.

    In early 2007 Haaretz reported that aliyah for the year of 2006 was down approximately 9% from 2005, "the lowest number of immigrants recorded since 1988".[88] The number of new immigrants in 2007 was 18,127, the lowest since 1988. Only 36% of these new immigrants came from the former Soviet Union (close to 90% in the 1990s) while the number of immigrants from countries like France and the United States is stable.[89] Some 15,452 immigrants arrived in Israel in 2008 and 16,465 in 2009.[90] On October 20, 2009, the first group of Kaifeng Jews arrived in Israel, in an aliyah operation coordinated by Shavei Israel.[91][92][93] Shalom Life reported that over 19,000 new immigrants arrived in Israel in 2010, an increase of 16 percent over 2009.[94]
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 19-12-2016 mė 20:09

  11. #11
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    SI mund te kerkosh token e dikujt kur aske lindur dhe baba e babait te babait te babit tend qe ska lind fare aty atyu e kane qene te je perzjer dhe jetuar me 300 shtete e lloj lloj rraca, dhe ska qene shtet por fe dhe ti po ndjek fene , e tvish tkerkosh token e dikujt qe ka jetuar aty per 1400 deri ne kohrat moderne dhe tani thush ishte toka jote?

    A ka llogjike kjo a ka ku te shkoj?

    Hadje ti dnajme kufite me vitin zero, po ashtu serbia le tekerkoj tuirqise azine e vogel qe ka pas greqia se jane te njejtit fe dhe greqia le ti marri tuqrise, e franca le ti kthej fiseve fisve tribale dhe ato te gjithe te ben shtet, italia dhe komplet evropa dhe asia e mesme dhe cod pjese e tokes le ti bej fiste tribale shtet dhe ata te kerkojne tokat qe gjyshat e gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit qe nga viti 0 dhe pastaj te kthehn ne shtet.
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 19-12-2016 mė 20:47

  12. #12
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Edhe dicka tejetr para se ta merrete ottomanet


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_...usalem_(AD_70)

    The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War. The Roman army, led by the future Emperor Titus, with Tiberius Julius Alexander as his second-in-command, besieged and conquered the city of Jerusalem, which had been occupied by its Jewish defenders in 66.

    The siege ended with the sacking of the city and the destruction of its Second Temple. The destruction of both the first and second temples is still mourned annually as the Jewish fast Tisha B'Av. The Arch of Titus, celebrating the Roman sack of Jerusalem and the Temple, still stands in Rome.

    Contents [hide]
    1 The Siege
    2 Destruction of Jerusalem
    3 Commemoration
    3.1 Roman
    3.2 Jewish
    4 Perceptions and historical legacy
    5 In later art
    6 See also
    7 References
    8 External links
    The Siege[edit]
    [show] v t e
    First Jewish–Roman War
    Despite early successes in repelling the Roman sieges, the Zealots fought amongst themselves, and they lacked proper leadership, resulting in poor discipline, training, and preparation for the battles that were to follow. At one point they destroyed the food stocks in the city, a drastic measure thought to have been undertaken perhaps in order to enlist a merciful God's intervention on behalf of the besieged Jews.[3]

    Titus began his siege a few days before Passover,[4] surrounding the city, with three legions (V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, XV Apollinaris) on the western side and a fourth (X Fretensis) on the Mount of Olives to the east.[5][6] If the reference in his Jewish War at 6:421 is to Titus' siege, though difficulties exist with its interpretation, then at the time, according to Josephus, Jerusalem was thronged with many people who had come to celebrate Passover.[7] The thrust of the siege began in the west at the Third Wall, north of the Jaffa Gate. By May, this was breached and the Second Wall also was taken shortly afterwards, leaving the defenders in possession of the Temple and the upper and lower city. The Jewish defenders were split into factions: John of Gischala group murdered another faction leader, Eleazar ben Simon, whose men were entrenched in the forecourts of the Temple.[4] The enmities between John of Gischala and Simon bar Giora were papered over only when the Roman siege engineers began to erect ramparts. Titus then had a wall built to girdle the city in order to starve out the population more effectively. After several failed attempts to breach or scale the walls of the Fortress of Antonia, the Romans finally launched a secret attack, overwhelming the sleeping Zealots and taking the fortress by late July.[4]

    After Jewish allies killed a number of Roman soldiers, Titus sent Josephus, the Jewish historian, to negotiate with the defenders; this ended with Jews wounding the negotiator with an arrow, and another sally was launched shortly after. Titus was almost captured during this sudden attack, but escaped.


    Catapulta, by Edward Poynter (1868). Siege engines such as this were employed by the Roman army during the siege.
    Overlooking the Temple compound, the fortress provided a perfect point from which to attack the Temple itself. Battering rams made little progress, but the fighting itself eventually set the walls on fire; a Roman soldier threw a burning stick onto one of the Temple's walls. Destroying the Temple was not among Titus' goals, possibly due in large part to the massive expansions done by Herod the Great mere decades earlier. Titus had wanted to seize it and transform it into a temple dedicated to the Roman Emperor and the Roman pantheon. The fire spread quickly and was soon out of control. The Temple was captured and destroyed on 9/10th of Tisha B'Av, at the end of August, and the flames spread into the residential sections of the city.[4][6] Josephus described the scene:

    As the legions charged in, neither persuasion nor threat could check their impetuosity: passion alone was in command. Crowded together around the entrances many were trampled by their friends, many fell among the still hot and smoking ruins of the colonnades and died as miserably as the defeated. As they neared the Sanctuary they pretended not even to hear Caesar's commands and urged the men in front to throw in more firebrands. The partisans were no longer in a position to help; everywhere was slaughter and flight. Most of the victims were peaceful citizens, weak and unarmed, butchered wherever they were caught. Round the Altar the heaps of corpses grew higher and higher, while down the Sanctuary steps poured a river of blood and the bodies of those killed at the top slithered to the bottom.[8]

    Josephus's account absolves Titus of any culpability for the destruction of the Temple, but this may merely reflect his desire to curry favor with the Flavian dynasty.[8]

    The Roman legions quickly crushed the remaining Jewish resistance. Part of the remaining Jews escaped through hidden underground tunnels, while others made a final stand in the Upper City. This defence halted the Roman advance as they had to construct siege towers to assail the remaining Jews. The city was completely under Roman control by September 7, and the Romans continued to pursue those who had fled the city.




    Josephus claims that 1.1 million people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish, and that 97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon bar Giora and John of Giscala.[12] His figures are rejected as impossible by modern scholarship, since around the time about a million people lived in Palestine, probably about half of them were Jews, and sizable Jewish populations remained in the area after the war was over, even in the hard-hit region of Judea.[13]

    Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, saying that the victory did not come through his own efforts but that he had merely served as an instrument of God's wrath.[14]




    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_...salem_(587_BC)


    However, the Babylonian Chronicles support the enumeration of Zedekiah's reign on a non-accession basis. Zedekiah's first year, when he was installed by Nebuchadnezzar, was, therefore, in 598/597 BC according to Judah's Tishri-based calendar. The fall of Jerusalem, in his eleventh year, would then have been in the summer of 587 BC. The Babylonian Chronicles allow the fairly precise dating of the capture of Jehoiachin and the start of Zedekiah's reign, and it also provide the accession year of Nebuchadnezzar's successor Amel-Marduk (Evil Merodach) as 562/561 BC, the 37th year of Jehoiachin's captivity according to 2 Kings 25:27. The Babylonian records, related to Jehoiachin's reign, are consistent with the fall of the city in 587 BC and so are inconsistent with a 586 date.

    Timeline of events in final siege[edit]
    A timeline for the final siege of Jerusalem is shown in the table below. Dates are taken from the 2011 From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology, a book by Andrew E. Steinnman.[14]

    Source Date Events
    2 Kgs 25:1; Ezek 24:1-2 10 Tebeth =
    27 Jan 589 BC Beginning of final siege.
    Jer 34: 8-10 1 Tishri =
    29 Sep 588 Release of Hebrew slaves at beginning of a Sabbatical year.
    Jer 34:11-22; 37:5-16 Between Tishri 588 &
    Nisan 587 = Oct 588 to Apr 587 Babylonians temporarily lift siege due to approach of Egyptian army. Slaves taken back. Jeremiah arrested as he attempts to go to Anathoth.
    Jer 34:22; Ezek 30:20-21 7 Nisan =
    29 Apr 587 Egyptians defeated. Siege resumes.
    2 Kgs 25:2-4; Jer 39:2, 52:7;
    Ezek 33:21, 40:1 9 Tammuz =
    29 Jul 587 Wall breached. Zedekiah captured.
    2 Kgs 25:8 7 Ab =
    25 Aug 587 Nebuzaradan arrives at Jerusalem (cf. Jonah 3:3) from Riblah in Hamath and begins consultation with commanders in the field regarding the pillaging of the city.
    2 Kgs 25:9-19; 2 Chr 36:18-19;
    Jer 52:12-25 10 Ab =
    28 Aug 587 Nebuzaradan leads forces into Jerusalem (cf. Jonah 3:4) to pillage, destroy, and burn the city and its temple.




    Pra jo vetem qe kan jetuar jashte jeruslameit por edhe ata qi ishin aty ishkriu dhe i mori rob romaket dhe kane qenbe jasht shume me para se ti merrte otomanet.
    Tani sot del lengu i strelngut te strelngut te strelengut te strelengut te strelngut qe dhe ata vet shume kohe me perpara skane jetuar aty, dhe del ky tjetri i so ka token e tij aty sepse ehste cifut dhe khsu thot feja tyre qe jane tokat e tyre.
    Ajde gallate ajde.
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 19-12-2016 mė 20:50

  13. #13
    i/e regjistruar Maska e HFTengineer
    Anėtarėsuar
    24-04-2016
    Postime
    469

    Pėr: "Izraeli nje startup nation"

    Pra i bie mire 1400 pas krishit me otomanet por edhe, 500 te romakve, plus ca ka jetuar jashte erritur ne kohrat modrne rreth 1900 + vjet i bie katra katra katra katra katra katra katar gjyshi i gjyshi gyjhsit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshiut te gjyshit te gjyshit
    \


    Dhe perc ktyre kane qene 1550 para krishiti cifutete kan shku nga egjipti dhe ne siri babiloni etj etj. Pra rreth 3400 +vjet qe sjetojne aty dhe jane perhapo neper.

    [


    Del cifuti i perzjer me treqind popuj e rraca e qe dhe ca te tjere, qe ka dhe lengun e strelngun te konvertuar si ne evrope dhe azi e ku do tjeter ethote meqnese gjyshi i gjyshit te gjyshtet e gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshit te gjyshite x 400........... tim


    url]https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2013/10/08/ashkenazi-jewish-women-descended-mostly-from-italian-converts-new-study-asserts/[/url]

    rreth 400 gjerenacjone perpara ka pat diku aty mje peme[dhe isreali i sotem ehste shume here me i madh sec shtrihej ] dhe qe nga 1948 deri me sot formojn nje fe te re dhe nje levizje zionosmini nacjonal [dhe jep mend te tjerve e propagandon e lobon kundra nacjonalizmit ne evrope e ameriike] megjithse skishte jetuar asnjhere aty e skishte shtet dhe jeduismi ka qene fe, dhe thote kam toke aty se kshu thote libri im dhe me, forta e quen veten dhe demokraci duke marr tokat me zor, kunder cod ligji e orgainzte botrore e duke bere spastrim etnik cdo vit..
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Israel
    Po sqe baraslete ksjo di cquhet me.
    Ndryshuar pėr herė tė fundit nga HFTengineer : 19-12-2016 mė 23:12

Ruaj Lidhjet

Regullat e Postimit

  • Ju nuk mund tė hapni tema tė reja.
  • Ju nuk mund tė postoni nė tema.
  • Ju nuk mund tė bashkėngjitni skedarė.
  • Ju nuk mund tė ndryshoni postimet tuaja.
  •