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  1. #1
    http://www.ganoweb.com Maska e Shpirt Njeriu
    Anėtarėsuar
    30-09-2002
    Vendndodhja
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    Albanian History!!

    Disa shkrime reth historise Shqiptare


    1054
    Christianity divides into Catholic and Orthodox churches. Christians in southern Albania are left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome.


    1081
    Albania and Albanians are mentioned for the first time in a historical record, by Byzantine emperor. Twelfth Century Serbs occupy parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.


    1204
    Venice wins control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regain control of the southern portion and establish the Despotate of Epirus.


    1272
    Forces of the King of Naples occupy Durrės and establish the Kingdom of Arbėria, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.


    1385
    Albanian ruler of Durrės invites Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.


    1389
    Albanians join Serbian-led Balkan army that is defeated by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosova.


    1430
    Gjergj Kastrioti is born.


    1443
    After losing a battle near Nis, Skenderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defect from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja.


    1444
    Albanian principalities unite at Lezha under Skenderbeg, who is proclaimed chief of Albanian resistance.


    1449
    Albanians, under Skenderbeg, rout Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.


    1468
    Skenderbeg dies.


    1478
    Kruja falls to Ottoman Turks; Shkodra falls a year later. Subsequently, many Albanians flee to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining are forced to convert to Islam.


    Early Seventeenth Century
    Some Albanians who convert to Islam find careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military. Seventeenth Century and Eighteenth Century About two-thirds of Albanians convert to Islam.


    1822
    Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.


    1830
    1000 Albanian leaders invited to meet with Ottoman general who kills about half of them.


    1835
    Ottoman Porte divides Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.


    1861
    First school known to use Albanian language in modern times is open in Shkodra.


    1877-78
    Treaty of San Stefano, signed after Russo-Turkish War, assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain block the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturn the Treaty of San Stefano and divide Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren begins to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affect Albanians.


    1881
    Ottoman forces crush Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families are arrested and deported.


    1897
    Ottoman authorities disband a reactivated League of Prizren, execute its leader and ban Albanian language books.


    1908
    Albanian intellectuals meet in Manastir (Bitolja, Macedonia), at the Congress of Manastir to standardize the Albanian alphabet using the Latin script. Up to now, Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic script had been used.


    1912
    May. Albanians rise against the Ottoman authorities and seize Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia). October. First Balkan War begins, and Albanian leaders affirm Albania as an independent state.

    November. Albanian delegates at Vlora declare the independence of Albania and establish a provisional government. December. Ambassadorial conference opens in London and discusses Albania's fate.


    1913
    May. Treaty of London ends First Balkan War, Second Balkan War begins November. Treaty of Bucharest ends Second Balkan War. Great Powers recognize an independent Albanian state. Demographics are ignored, however, and half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) are divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.


    1914
    Prince Wilhelm of Wied is installed as head of the Albanian state by the International Control Commission. His rule ended within six months, with the outbreak of World War I.


    1918
    World War I ends, with Italian armies occupying most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupying the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers begin struggle for dominance over Albanians. In December, Albanian leaders meet at Durrės to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace Conference.


    1919
    Serbs attack Albanian cities; Albanians adopt guerilla warfare. Albania is denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French and Greek negotiators decide to divide Albania among Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia. This decision is vetoed by American president Wilson.


    1920
    January. Albanian leaders meet in Lushnjė and reject the partitioning of Albania by the Treaty of Paris, warn that Albanians will take up arms in defence of territory, and creates bicameral parliament. February. Albanian government moves to Tirana, which becomes the capital. September. Albania forces Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon claims on Albanian territory. December. Albania is admitted to the League of Nations as sovereign and independent state.


    1921
    November.Yugoslav troops invade Albania; League of Nations commission forces Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirms Albania's


    1922
    August. Ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople recognizes the Autochephalous Albanian Orthodox Church. September. Ahmet Zogu assumes position as Prime Minister.


    1923
    Albania's Sunni Muslims break ties with Constantinople and pledge primary allegiance to native country.


    1924
    March. Zogu's party wins elections for National Assembly, but Zogu steps down after a financial scandal and a assassination attempt. July. A peasant-backed insurgency wins control of Tirana; Fan S. Noli becomes Prime Minister; Zogu flees to Yugoslavia. December. Zogu, backed by Yugoslav army, returns to power and begins to smother parliamentary democracy; Noli flees to Italy.


    1926
    Italy and Albania sign First Treaty of Tirana, which guarantees Zogu's political position and Albania's boundaries.


    1928
    Zogu pressures the parliament to dissolve itself, a new constituent assembly declares Albania a kingdom and Zogu becomes Zog I, "King of the Albanians."


    1931
    Zog refuses to renew the First Treaty of Tirana. Italians continue with political and economic pressure.


    1934
    After Albania signs trade agreements with Greece and Yugoslavia, Italy suspends economic support, then attempts to threaten Albania.


    1935
    Mussolini presents a gift of 3,000,000 gold frances to Albania; other economic aid follows.


    1939
    March. Mussolini delivers ultimatum to Albania. April. Mussolini's troops invade and occupy Albania; Albanian parliament votes to unite Albania with Italy; Zog flees to Greece.


    1940
    Italian army attacks Greece through Albania.


    1941
    April. Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeat Greece and Yugoslavia. November. Albanian Communist Party founded; Enver Hoxha becomes first secretary.


    1942
    September. Communist Party organizes National Liberation Movement, a popular front resistance organization. October. Non-communist nationalist groups form to resist the Italian occupation.


    1943
    August. Italy's surrender to Allied forces weakens Italian hold on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelm five Italian divisions. September. German forces invade and occupy Albania.


    1944
    January. Communist Partisans, supplied with British weapons, gain control of southern Albania. May. Communists meet to organize an Albanian government; Hoxha becomes chairman of executive committee and supreme commander of the Army of National Liberation. July. Communist forces enter central and northern Albania. October. Communists establish provisional government with Hoxha as prime minister. November. Germans withdraw from Tirana, communists enter capital. December. Communist provisional government adopts laws allowing state regulation of commercial enterprises, foreign and domestic trade.


    1945
    January. Communist provisional government agrees to restore Kosova to Yugoslavia as an autonomous region; Yugoslav leaders bring Kosova under marshal law. Tribunals begin in Albania to condemn thousands of "war criminals" and "enemies of the people" to death or prison. Communist regime begins to nationalize industry, transportation, forests, pastures. December. Elections are held for the People's Assembly. Only members of the Democratic Front are permitted to participate.


    1946
    People's Assembly proclaims Albania a "people's republic"; purges of non-communists from government positions begins. People's Assembly adopts new constitution. Enver Hoxha becomes prime minister, defense minister, foreign minister and commander-in-chief. July. Treaty of friendship signed with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisors and grain begin pouring into Albania. October. British destroyers hit mines off Albania's coast. The United Nations and the International Court of Justice condemn Albania.


    1948
    June. Albanian leaders launch anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and force Yugoslav advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia is abrogated; Hoxha begins purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism"; Soviet Union begins economic aid to Albania. November. Communist Party of Albania renames itself the Party of Labor of Albania.


    1950
    Britain and United States insert anti-communist guerillas into Albania; all are unsuccessful.


    1955
    Albania becomes a founding member of the Warsaw Pact.


    1960
    Albania sides with China on Sino-Soviet ideological dispute; consequently Soviet economic support is curtailed and Chinese aid is increased.


    1961
    Soviet Union breaks diplomatic relations, Albania looks towards China for support.


    1967
    Hoxha regime conducts violent campaign to extinguish religious life in Albania; by year's end over two thousand religious buildings were closed or converted to other uses. Albania is declared "the world's first atheist country," religious leaders are imprisoned and executed.


    1968
    Albania condemns Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia, subsequently Albania withdraws from Warsaw Pact.


    1974
    New constitution adopted in Yugoslavia. Autonomous units, including Kosova, become constituent members of the federation.


    1976
    New constitution adopted. Albania becomes a "people's socialist republic."


    1978
    China terminates all economic and military aid to Albania.


    1981
    Massive demonstrations occur in Kosova. Demonstrators demand Kosova become a republic in Yugoslavia. Yugoslav police and army presence is increased in Kosova.


    1985
    Enver Hoxha dies. Ramiz Alia is his successor.


    1989>
    Alia, addressing the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee, signals that radical changes to the economic system are necessary. In Yugoslavia, a new constitution is adopted in Serbia, which limits the autonomy of Kosova. The constitution passes without the approval of the parliament of Kosova.


    1990
    January. Demonstrations at Shkodra force authorities to declare a state of emergency. July. Young people demonstrate against regime in Tirana, 5,000 citizens seek refuge in foreign embassies. Albanian delegates of the parliament of Kosova declare the independence of Kosova from Serbia. Subsequently Serbia abolishes the parliament and government of Kosova, closes down the only Albanian daily, and takes over the state-owned television and radio. August. Government abandons its monopoly on foreign commerce and begins to open Albania to foreign trade. December. University students demonstrate in streets and call for dictatorship to end; Alia meets with students; multiparty system introduced; the Democratic Party, the first opposition party is established; regime authorizes political pluralism.


    1991
    January. First opposition newspaper Rilindja Demokratike begins publishing. March-April. First multiparty elections held since the 1920s; Labor Party wins over 67 percent of votes, Democratic Party wins around 30 percent. April. Alia reelected to President. Assembly passes law on Major Constitutional Provisions which provides for fundamental human rights and separation of powers and invalidates the 1976 constitution. June. Prime Minister Fatos Nano and rest of cabinet resign after trade unions call for general strike to protest worsening economic conditions and killing of opposition demonstrators in Shkodra. Party of Labor renamed to Socialist Party of Albania. Albania accepted as a full member of the CSCE. August. 18,000 Albanians cross the Adriatic to seek asylum in Italy; most are returned. People's Assembly passes law allowing private ownership, foreign investment and private employment of workers. September. A referendum is held in Kosova. Over 90 percent of voters vote for independence. December. Democratic Party withdraws ministers after accusing communists of blocking reform. Alia sets up new government headed by Vilson Ahmeti and sets March 1992 for new elections.


    1992
    March. Democratic Party scores decisive election victory over the Socialist Party in the midst of economic freefall and social chaos. Elections are held in Kosova; the Democratic League of Kosova wins the majority of votes; the elections are called illegal by the Serbian regime. April. Sali Berisha, leader of the Democratic Party, becomes first democratically elected president. September. Former President Alia and eighteen other former communist officials, including Nexhmije Hoxha, wife of late dictator Hoxha, arrested and charged with corruption and other offenses.


    1996
    General elections were again held in mid-1996, but the victory by President Sali Berisha's Democratic Party was tainted by accusations of fraud. Opposition parties eventually boycotted the parliament.


    1997
    Berisha was elected to another five-year term. Also in early 1997, several fraudulent investment schemes failed, costing thousands of Albanians their savings. Although the government promised to partially reimburse many investors, the combination of economic disruption and political scandal prompted Albanians in several cities first to protest, then to riot. By March, a sporadic rebellion had broken out and several parts of the country were virtually ungoverned. The southern part of the country, including the cities of Vlorė and Sarandė, was controlled by local militias or armed citizens defending themselves against looters. In order to prevent the outbreak of an all-out civil war, President Berisha appointed a Socialist, Bashkim Fano, to lead a government of national reconciliation and also agreed to hold early general elections in June. The new administration appealed for an international force to help restore law and order in the country. However, the multinational contingent led by an Italian commander, which arrived in April, was only mandated to protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance to the most destitute areas of Albania.

  2. #2
    Programues Softueresh Maska e edspace
    Anėtarėsuar
    04-04-2002
    Vendndodhja
    Filadelfia, SHBA
    Mosha
    35
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    2,573
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    Kronologjia e Shqiperisė

    Nga Ilirėt deri nė vitin 1997
    Kush ka kohė le ta pėrkthejė nė Shqip.

    2000 BC or earlier
    Illyrians inhabit western half of Balkan peninsula

    2700-1200
    BC Neolithic Maliq settlement near Kor?a

    ca. 627
    BC Durrės (Epidamnos) founded by Greeks

    ca. 600
    BC Butrint founded

    588 BC
    Apollonia founded

    435 BC
    Conflict between Epidamnos and Corfu

    410 BC
    Berat founded

    400-300
    BC Alliance of Illyrian tribes of Encheleans, Taulantes, Molosses and Ardianes constitute their kingdom

    332
    BC Epidamnos taken by Illyrian leader, Glaukias

    307-277
    BC Reign of Pyrrhus who aspires to the Macedonian throne and organizes a military campaign in Italy and Sicily

    231 BC
    Queen Teuta's reign

    229-168 BC
    Roman invasions establish province of Illyricum

    168 BC
    Further Illyrian-Roman war. Illyrians defeated, Shkodra captured. Roman rule established

    130 BC
    Construction of the Via Egnatia begins

    48 BC
    Pompey defeats Julius Caesar at Durrės

    6-9 AD
    Bato of Desidiates leads unsuccessful Illyrian uprising against Romans

    ca. 150
    Elbasan founded

    395
    Division of Roman Empire. Most of present-day Albania included in Eastern Roman Empire (later known as Byzantium)

    441
    Invasion of Illyria by Huns. Destruction of several cities in Macedonia and Dardania

    476
    Fall of Western Roman Empire

    529-640
    Invasion of Antes, Huns, Lombards, Gepides, Slavs and Avars throughout the Balkans, temporarily ending Byzantine authority. Romanized Illyrian population withdraws to coastal towns and northern interior mountains

    732
    Separation of Albania's Bishoprics from Roman dependency

    851-1018
    Bulgarian rule in Albanian territories

    896
    Bulgars capture Kruja

    1014
    Basil II retakes Albania for Byzantium

    1054
    Split of the churches: Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholic

    1081
    Attack by Normans

    1096
    Armies of the First Crusade devastate Albania

    1108
    Normans leave Albania

    1180
    Serbs conquer Shkodra and Prizren provinces

    1190-99
    Feudal state of Arbėria under Progon , with Kruja as capital

    1257-58
    Arbėresh uprising against Byzantine rule

    1272-86
    Formation of the Kingdom of Arbania by Charles of Anjou

    1331-55
    Serbian dominion under Stefan Dushan until his death in 1355, ending nine centuries of Byzantine rule in Albania

    1338
    Tanush Thopia rules the regions between the rivers Shkumbin and Mat, followed by rule of Charles Thopia

    1385-1417
    Ottomans under Sultan Murad I lead invasions into Albania. Conquest of Gjirokastra, Delvina and Pėrmet

    1389
    Ottomans defeat Serbs, Albanians, Hungarians, Croats and Bulgarians under the leadership of Serbian Prince Lazar at the Battle of Kosova

    1393
    Ottomans conquer Shkodra and Ulcinium (Ulcinj)

    1405
    George Castrioti (Skanderbeg) born

    1415
    Ottomans conquer Kruja

    1417
    Ottomans capture Vlora, Kanina and Berat

    1419
    Ottomans capture Gjirokastra

    1423
    Ottomans capture Kruja Castle

    1443-68
    Skanderbeg defends Kruja and other Albanian territories from Ottoman invasions

    1444
    Convention of Lezha. Skanderbeg unites Albanian nobles in the Albanian League to fight the Ottomans

    1448
    Conclusion of peace treaty between Skanderbeg and Venice in struggle against Ottomans

    1450-1550
    Main phase of emigration to southern Italy

    1468
    Death of Skanderbeg

    1478
    Ottomans capture Kruja

    1479
    Ottomans capture Shkodra. Emigration of Shkodra's citizens to Venice

    1506-1912
    Ottoman Empire subdues all Albania

    1508-10
    Publication in Rome of Marin Barleti's book about the life and deeds of Skanderbeg

    1555
    Earliest known text in Albanian language, Gjon Buzuku's Meshari (Liturgy), published in Italy

    1600
    Tirana founded

    1632
    Elementary school at Kurbin, near Kruja, founded

    1639
    High school (gymnasium) opened in Blinisht

    1699-1711
    Massive uprising against Ottomans

    1735
    Emigration of Albanians from Shestan to Zara (Dalmatia)

    1757-1831
    Bushati dynasty reigns in northern Albania

    1761
    New Testament translated into Albanian by Gregorius of Durrės

    1788
    Ali Pasha Tepelenė seizes Ioannina

    1796-97
    Ethem Bey Mosque built in Tirana

    1809
    Byron visits Albania

    1822
    Ali Pasha Tepelenė deposed and killed

    1833-44
    Anti-Ottoman uprising in most parts of Albanian territories, demanding self-administration

    1839
    Implementation of Tanzimat (Ottoman taxation system)

    1844
    The first alphabet (Evėtori) in Albanian language published by Naum Veqilharxhi (born 1797)

    1848
    Edward Lear travels in Albania

    1876
    Serbia and Montenegro declare war on Turkey

    1876-77
    Anti-Ottoman uprising of Mirdita. Signing of the London Treaty by the Great Powers, recognizing autonomy for the nations of the Ottoman Empire excluding the Albanian nation. The Central Committee for the Defence of National Rights of Albanians is established under the leadership of Abdyl Frashėri, in Istanbul. War between Russia and Turkey

    1878
    Treaty of San Stefano awards part of Albanian territory to Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro. Violent expulsions of Albanians from their ethnic territories in Southern Serbia and Montenegro. League of Prizren founded, demanding that all Albanian territory be gathered into one vilayet July: Treaty of Berlin awards Ulcinj to Montenegro. The Congress of Berlin recognizes the expansion of Serbia and Montenegro in Albanian territories

    1881
    Provisional government declared by the assembly of the Albanian League, headed by Ymer Prizrens. Armed forces of the Albanian League liberate several cities in Kosova and Macedonia. League of Prizren dissolved by the Ottomans

    1887
    First Albanian-language school opened, at Kor?a

    1908
    The Congress for the Unification of the Albanian alphabet is held in Monastir

    1909
    Elbasan High School amongst about sixty schools opened. Four Albanian-language printing presses and seventeen newspapers begin publication

    1910
    Young Turks require Turkish to be language of instruction in all schools of Ottoman Empire. Revolt against Young Turks in Shkodra region results in 12,000 refugees fleeing into Montenegro. Albanian newspapers suspended. Hundreds of Albanian activists arrested

    1912 28 November:
    Albanian independence proclaimed by Ismail Qemali in Vlora. Fighting breaks out between Albanian and Greek communities in the area of Himara

    1912-13
    The Balkan Wars. Serbs occupy Durrės

    1913
    Massacre of Albanians by Serbian and Montenegrin soldiers in Kosova, Macedonia and Montenegro. Massive forced exodus of Albanians to Turkey. Greek forces occupy Gjirokastra and Tepelena. London Conference of Great Powers recognizes Albania's independence with new borders, but excluding over one third of the Albanian population

    1914
    7 March: Great Powers place Prince Wilhelm zu Wied at head of government
    3 September: zu Wied withdraws from government
    October: Italy seizes Sazan Island

    1915
    Serbs capture Elbasan. Montenegrin forces occupy Shkodra. Secret Treaty of London gives concessions to Italy in Albania and makes plans to share land with Greece, Serbia and Montenegro

    1916
    Skhodra occupied by Austrians. Kor?a declared autonomous province, ruled by Albanians under French military protection (until February 1918); by this time nearly 70,000 were killed, or died of starvation. During the First World War Albania also overrun by Bulgarian, Italian and Greek troops

    1918
    Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes declared (including Kosova)

    1920
    21 January: Congress of Lushnja provides new Constitution
    February: Tirana (population 12,000) becomes capital of Albania. Esad Toptani assassinated in Paris
    December: Albania admitted to the League of Nations

    1921
    Ambassadors' Conference in Paris (on borders). Rebellion led by Marka Gjoni to proclaim the establishment of the Republic of Mirdita

    1923
    First population census: 817,460

    1924
    June: Fan Noli becomes Prime Minister
    24 December: Noli overthrown by Ahmet Zogu

    1925-28
    Albanian Republic established with Zogu as President. Deterioration of relations with Yugoslavia

    1928-39
    Albania established as a monarchy under King Zog I, with growing Italian support

    1931
    The Yugoslav Kingdom approves the law for colonization of the southern territories

    1937
    Memorandum (at the Serbian Cultural Club in Belgrade) for compulsory expulsion of the Albanians from Kosova and Macedonia to Albania and Turkey

    1938
    Yugoslav-Turkish agreement on the expulsion of Albanians

    1939
    Italian invasion and occupation. Anti-fascist demonstrations in main Albanian cities. Zog, with family and retinue, flees to Greece

    1939-45
    Second World War

    1941
    Germany occupies Yugoslavia. Albanian Communist Party founded. Mussolini annexes Kosova to Albania

    1942
    The National Anti-fascist Liberation Front founded

    1943
    German occupation of Albania

    1943-44
    The Conference of the National Liberation Council for Kosova and Dukagjin approves the unification of Kosova and other Albanian territories (under Yugoslavia) with Albania

    1944
    Liberation from Germans. Yugoslav influence 29 November: Communists, headed by Enver Hoxha, seize power

    1945
    First general election won by the only permitted party, the Democratic Front (Communists)

    1946
    Enver Hoxha becomes Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, Defence Minister, Commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and Secretary of the Albanian Communist Party. Declaration of the People's Republic of Albania. Educational reform programme established to eradicate illiteracy, involving dogmatic doctrine of socialist realism in science and art. Corfu Channel incident. By Yugoslav constitution, Kosova is declared an autonomous district of the People's Republic of Serbia. Other Albanian territories divided between the Republics of Macedonia and Montenegro

    1948
    July: break with Yugoslavia

    1949
    Execution of Ko?i Xoxe, accused of being a Yugoslav agent, and purging of many others from the Party

    1950-52
    Anglo-American attempts to subvert the Communist régime fail with loss of many Albanian lives. Most clergymen imprisoned. Nationalization of all businesses, banks and industrial enterprises

    1951-5
    First (of eight) Five-Year Plan

    1952
    Start of Soviet building of naval bases in Albania's ports

    1955
    Albania becomes a member of United Nations Organization and Warsaw Treaty Organization

    1955-56
    'Action for the collection of arms' in Kosova causes tens of thousands of Albanians to emigrate to Turkey

    1957
    Tirana University founded

    1961
    Diplomatic relations with USSR severed. Closer links made with China (formalized in 1962). Period of Chinese influence lasts until 1978. Former King Zog dies in Paris

    1966
    Fourth Plenary of the Central Committee of Communist League of Yugoslavia. The violence and terror of the state security service against Albanians is condemned

    1967
    Declaration of Albania as an atheist state; all religious activity is banned

    1968
    Albanian demonstrations in Prishtina demanding republican status for Kosova. Brutal Serbian policy response. Albania withdraws from Warsaw Treaty Organization

    1968-70
    Main phase of electrification of villages

    1970
    University of Prishtina established. Co-operation with Tirana University. Diplomatic relations with Denmark and Switzerland established

    1973-76
    Widespread purges within the APL

    1974
    Kosova granted wider autonomy in Yugoslavia

    1975
    Population census: 2,430,000

    1976
    New Constitution defines Albania as People's Socialist Republic

    1978
    Break with China

    1978-81
    Bunkers and fortifications built

    1979
    Severe earthquake at Lezha and Shkodra

    1980
    Death of Josip Broz Tito

    1981
    Kosova student demonstrations demanding status of Republic for Kosova, quelled violently. More than 7,000 arrested. Mehmet Shehu's (declared) suicide

    1985
    Death of Enver Hoxha, succeeded by Ramiz Alia

    1986
    Shkodra-Titograd railway opened (but little used)

    1987
    Official end of state of war with Greece

    1989
    February: strikes in Trepca mines (Kosova) against suppression of autonomy for Kosova lead to state of emergency imposed by Slobodan Milosevic, President of Serbia. Kosova Democratic League founded
    March: New Yugoslav Constitution withdraws Kosova's autonomy
    June: spectacular celebration by Serbs of 600th anniversary of the 'Battle of Kosovo'

    1990
    May: UN Secretary-General Perez de Cuellar visits Albania. Workers in state industries dismissed from their jobs. All education in Kosova to be supplied henceforth in Serbo-Croatian only. Teachers and other professionals using the Albanian language lose their jobs.
    July: thousands storm foreign embassies in Tirana. Diplomatic relations restored with USSR
    September: Alia addresses UN General Assembly in New York
    October: Ismail Kadare seeks asylum in France
    November: religious observance again permitted
    December: Democratic Party founded

    1991
    January: Ethem Bey Mosque reopened in Tirana government.
    February: thirty-foot high statue of Enver Hoxha in Tirana toppled. Political prisoners released
    March: elections return majority for APL. Diplomatic relations re-established with the US
    April: 300 'Jews' (including people married to and accepted as Jews) evacuated to Israel
    May: resumption of diplomatic relations with Great Britain. General strike forces creation of National Stability Kosovar Albanians hold referendum and vote for an independent and sovereign state of Kosova. European Union announces the disintegration of Yugoslavia
    August: peak of exodus of refugees to Greece and Italy; 40,000 refugees enter Greece legally during 1991 and many more thousands illegally. Diplomatic relations established with Israel

    1992
    March: elections lead to Democratic Party government
    April: Sali Berisha becomes President
    May: Ibrahim Rugova elected by Kosovars as their President
    July: Albanian Communist Party banned September: Alia arrested on charges of corruption

    1993
    Nexmije Hoxha (Enver Hoxha's widow) sentenced to nine years in prison for misappropriation of funds. All human rights workers refused entry to Kosova. Co-operation treaty with Turkey
    April: Pope John Paul II visits Shkodra and Tirana
    July: Former premier Fatos Nano charged with misappropriation of funds
    August: IMF approves $29 million loan to Albania. Fatos Nano arrested

    1994
    Albanian University of Tetovo founded. Nano sentenced to twelve years imprisonment
    November: Berisha holds referendum on the Constitution, receives forty per cent of the vote. Attempts to open an Albanian Faculty at the University of Tetovo, Macedonia, violently prevented by Macedonian authorities

    1995
    July: Alia and some thirty other political prisoners granted amnesty. Albania accepted as a member of the Council of Europe
    September: the 'Genocide Law' brought into force, whereby anyone who held office to the executive, the legislature or the judiciary during the communist period was not permitted to stand as a parliamentary candidate

    1996
    Yugoslav agreement on Kosova schooling, but not implemented. Albania's gold returned from storage by the Bank of England. Albania's first stock exchange opens
    May: DP win second term in disputed elections

    1997
    January: the first of several 'pyramid' investment schemes collapses, unrest increases, 100 die from random shooting. By July 1,800 have died violently
    March: Berisha announces a coalition government. Military arms depots opened up all over the country
    June: Socialists win an overwhelming victory in the elections. Nano elected as Prime Minister and Rexhep Mejdani as President
    July: Berisha resigns as President, keeps seat in new parliament
    September-October: Escalation of state repression over right to fly the Albanian flag on public buildings results in three deaths in Gostivar, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
    1 October: nonviolent demonstration of 20,000 students at Prishtina University protesting against seven years of exclusion of Albanians from secondary and further education in Kosova; violently quelled by Serb police
    Edi

  3. #3
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    Historia e Shqiptarve

    Shqiptaret i perkasin njerit prej kombeve me te vjeter te Evropes. Nga 1250 B.C. deri ne 168 B.C., Shqiperia eshte banuar nga 14 konfederata te fiseve Pellazge, te udhehequr nga Mbreter qe e shikonin para-ardhjen e tyre nga Akili. Ketu eshte nje rishikim i shkurter i rruges komplekse te Historise Shqiptare qe nga kohet e hershme e deri ne mes te shekullit te 19te.

    Mbreteria e Ilireve e arriti zenitin e saj ne shekullin e 4te B.C., nen mbreterine e Bardhylit (Ylli i Bardhe). Me vone mbreteria e tij u mund dhe u aneksua nga Filipi i II-te, babai i Aleksandrit te Madh, ne 358 B.C. Pas vdekjes se Aleksandrit te Madh, Iliret u cuan kunder Maqedonasve dhe Grekeve. Ne 312 B.C. Mbreti Ilir Glaus deboi kolonizatoret Greke nga ishujt e Korfuzit dhe nga Epidamnus (apo Durrachion, apo Durazzi, apo Dyrrahium, apo Durres).

    Gjate dy lufterave Ilire te 229 dhe 219-tes B.C., Romaket munden te aneksonin pjesen me te madhe te Ballkanit Perendimor. Megjithe kete Mbreteria Ilire mbijetoi deri me 180 B.C. kur Dalmatet e deklaruan vetveten e tyre te pavarur dhe krijuan republiken e tyre te pavarur, e cila u pushtua nga Perandori Augustus ne 9 A.D., ne te njejtin vit ne te cilin legjionet Romane ne Gjermani u thyen nga Herman Saksoni.

    Ne 171 B.C. Mbreti i fundit Ilir, Genti u zu rob ne rrethinat e Skutarit (Shkodres) dhe u dergua si rob ne Rome. Mbreteria e tij u nda ndermjet tre provincave Romane te Dalmacise, Maqedonise dhe Epirit. Gjate historise se Romes, pese Perandore Roman – Diocletiani, Klaudiusi i II, Aureliani, Probus dhe Konstandi i I kishin origjine Ilire.

    Shqiptaret e hershem te mesjetes dolen nga kaosi i shkaterrimit te Perandorise Perendimore Romane si pasardhes te fiseve te Dardaneve dhe Feoneve, te cilet jetuan ne Ilirine e siperme dhe ne Trake deri ne kohet e pushtimeve massive te Goteve Gjerman, qe morren pjese ne trojet Shqiptare gjate shekullit te katert A.D.. Ne fund te shekullit te gjashte, Trako – Iliret u c’vendosen nga dyndjet e Avareve, Anteve dhe fiseve Bullgare Turko-Ugrike te sllavizuarva.

    Vendi i fundit ku Iliret gjeten strehim ne keto dyndje barbare ishin Malet e Epirit, Thesalise, Maqedonise Perendimore dhe Dalmacise. Ne 535, ushtrite e Perandorit Bizantin Justinian e pushtuan Ilirine dhe Moesine dhe debuan Gotet, Lombardet dhe Gepidet nga trojet Ilire. Por 100 vite me vone, Perandori Heracliu i II-te ftoi fiset gjysem te egra te “Sorbianeve” (Srbi, Serbet) dhe “Khrobates” (Hrvati, Kroatet) nga Kiskarpathia, te cilet te udhehequr nga lideret e tyre pushtuan territoret e Silezise se sotme dhe te Polonise Jugore, vende te braktisur nga Vandalet Gjerman dhe Ostragotet. Perandori Bizantin i vendosi ata (sllavet) ne Ballkanin Perendimor si mbrojtes te Konstandinopojes nga Avaret.

    Pas kesaj, Serbet, Kroatet dhe fise te tjera Sllave, shume shpejt dynden Moesine, Traken, Maqedonine dhe Greqine, biles sulmuan edhe Kreten. Megjithate Bizantinet i nenshtruan ata. Por Bullgaret (Bolgars, Volgars), nje rrace me origjine nga Turqit Altaik dhe rraces Urgike te bashkekohesve te tyre Mordovins dhe Ēuvasheve ne Rusine Veriore, i nenshtruan Serbet ne fund te shekullit te nente. Cari i tyre, Simoni i Madh (A.D. 893 – 927), i konvertuar ne Kirshterizmin Ortodoks, e zgjeroi mbreterine e tij nga malet Karpate e deri ne detin Adriatik, duke perfshire ketu Shqiperine, Kosoven, Serbine dhe Malin e Zi te sotshem.

    Kjo Perandoria e re Bullgare u shkaterrua ne betejen e Kleidonit ne 1014 nga Perandori Bizantin Basili i II, i cili urdheroi masakrimin e 10.000 Bullgareve te zene rober te luftes duke i qerruar nga syte

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