Viminacium (VIMINACIVM) ishte njė qytet i madh (kryeqyteti provincial) dhe kampin ushtarak tė romake e provincės Moesia (e sotme tė Serbisė ), dhe kryeqyteti i Moesia Superior . The archeological site occupies a total of 450 hectares. Site arkeologjike zė njė total prej 450 hektarė. The city dates back to the 1st century AD and contains archaeological remains of temples, streets, squares, amphitheatres, palaces, hippodromes and Roman baths. [ 1 ] It lies on the Roman
Viminacium is the capital of the province of Upper Moesia (Moesia Superior), subsequently, First Moesia (Moesia Prima) and the permanent camp of the Seventh Claudia Legion (VII Claudia Pia Fidelis). Based on the most recent archaeological finds, it is estimated that the military camp was probably set up in the first decades of the 1st century AD. Stereoscopic analysis, and that of the digital soil sample, indicate that the original camp (castrum) was twice the size of a camp normally considered to be billeting the 7the Claudia Legion. This is unequivocal proof that immediately after it had been created, Viminacium was where two legions were based. This civilian settlement under the rule of Hadrian was granted the status of a municipality (municipium); however, the finds of the thermae indicate that life in this city was very dynamic already at the time of Domitian (81-96 AD). The municipium status also implied civilian administration. During the reign of Gordian III (238-244 AD), it became a colony (colonia) of Roman citizens and was given the right to coin its own local money. Colony was the highest status that a city could be granted within the borders of the Roman Empire. Amid the preparations for the Dacian Wars (Dacia – present-day Romania), between 101- 107 AD, Emperor Traianus chose Viminacium for his troop build-up and as the staging area for attack on Decebalus, king of the Dacians. With its position in the plain, the last wide and open space before the Đerdap gorge, it was ideally placed for amassing larger military forces even at that time and on many other occasions later on, during its long history as a city. Downstream from Viminacium, it is only in the area of Kladovo that it is possible to regroup any larger forces. It is precisely for this reason that in the Đerdap gorge could be found only smaller fortifications for auxiliary units. Its location where the Mlava river empties into the Danube has enabled its rapid economic development. Exceptional finds in the necropolies around the city confirm the assumption of great wealth of its residents. The threat posed to the city as a result of the construction of the thermal power plant and coal mining at the open-cast mine Drmno has made necessary extensive excavations of the city necropolis. The excavations revealed more than 14,000 tombs with extraordinary contents and more than 40,000 artefacts, of which more than 700 gold and silver artefacts and dozens of unique world value. The Viminacium necropolis contained a number of fresco-painted tombs, including the one with a fresco depicting a young woman, which belongs to the masterpieces of late ancient fresco-painting from all territories of the Roman Empire. The use of most sophisticated technologies contributed to the detection of 21 artefacts prior to archaeological excavations. It was the first time that stereoscopic analysis of an archaeological site was made in our country, along with an analysis of satellite pictures, and a wide use of geo-radars, magnetometers, thermal vision filming, application of GPS (Global Positioning System) of sub-centimetre precision, including the use of three dimensional soil and object scanning by a 3D scan. Inside and around the city, archaeologists unearthed an amphitheatre, streets surrounded by buildings, monumental thermae and traces of a developed infrastructure, most notably streets, an aquaduct and sewerage. Multidisciplinary studies are now underway of the urban core and the immediate surroundings. In addition to archaeologists, they also involve geophysicists, mathematicians, electrical engineers and experts in three dimensional models of objects in the ground, remote control detection and satellite navigation. The fact that Viminacium is located in the furrows, among the fields, and that there is no modern settlement built above the Roman ruins, provides a unique opportunity to learn about all aspects of life in ancient times. The one-time Roman city and the military camp of Viminacium occupy more than 450 hectares of greater city and 220 hectares of inner city area. Situated on a clearing amid hundreds of hectares of arable land, it contains artefacts and fragments thereof from the Roman period, scattered about in the fields. Archaeological explorations undertaken in the last quarter of the twentieth century helped Viminacium to come slowly out of the scarce historical accounts and to become a city which, in its history that stretches over six centuries (1st-6th centuries AD), enjoyed a dynamic development and was a place where not only the cultures of the East and West met, but also one gladly descended on by the merchants from the Roman Empire. It seems that the material base of this city, whose goods attracted buyers even beyond the borders of the home province, was the basis for the establishment and maintenance of various art workshops in this area. It was these workshops that left us, from the 4th century, some of the best known works of the fresco-painted tombs of the late antique period. Fresco-painting, together with numerous tombs, also provided significant information about the beginnings of Christianity in this region. The unearthed, built tomb with the Heavenly Rider and Christ’s monogram, gives an idea of how the process of transition from paganism to Christianity evolved and how first Christian communities were created in these territories.
The size and importance of Viminacium is the consequence of several factors, of which special mention should be made also of the rich hinterland in the Mlava valley, but also an exceptionally favourable geographic position, both within the system of defence lines of the northern borders of the empire and a network of communications and commerce. Out of the facilities examined thus far, a certain number of them have already been covered by specially built constructions made of laminated wood and have been put on display.
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Far away from Rome, on the unpredictable Danube, the Roman Empire set up its border – limes. This established border extended from northern England, i.e. from the border with Scotland, across Germany, Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria up to Iraq and Iran, including the Near East with Turkey and the entire sub-Mediterranean part of North Africa. A series of fortifications were built on either side of the road along which the legions marched during the campaigns against the barbarian tribes across the Rhine and the Danube. About 40 legion camps, the so-called castrums (castrum) were built on that long defence line criss-crossed with thousands of smaller forts. They served for stationing Roman troops, i.e. legions which were 5000 to 6000 strong. What is particularly important to note is that the crack Roman troops were recruited precisely on our areas. The army coming via a ramified road network from distant Asian and African provinces easily reached the most remote areas of the western part of the Roman Empire, followed by traders and craftsmen, so that cities cropped up soon along all major road communications. Starting from the middle of the third century AD, the former marginal border provinces of Upper Moesia and Lower Pannonia became the focus of events in the Empire in the following almost two hundred years. Illyricum and its crack troops gave birth to seventeen emperors who ruled the Empire during the period of the deepest crises. It is indicative that from the latter half of the third to the middle of the fourth centuries AD, when the Roman Empire was undergoing a crisis, this area gained in importance.
The most recent archaeological explorations on the site of Viminacium (Viminacium), the capital of the Roman province of Upper Moesia (Moesia Superior), in late ancient time First Moesia (Moesia Prima), have shown that this large city and legion camp was the transition point between the West and the East, at the time when Rome as the capital was transferred to the East, to Constantinople. This is attested by the abundance of items found in Viminacium in recent years, especially relating to the first decades of the fourth century AD. The Roman emperors born either in the rich cities on the limes or in rugged hinterland changed the face of the world that existed until then. Having in mind that seventeen Roman emperors were born on the territory of present-day Serbia represent a fifth of the total number of all Roman emperors and the largest number of emperors born outside Italy, a project titled ITINERARIUM ROMANUM SERBIAE or ROAD OF ROMAN EMPERORS IN SERBIA was launched. The purpose of the project is to link together all these places of immeasurable historical and archaeological importance so as to make up a whole as existed when the Roman Empire stood on the banks of the Danube. Only in this way can the names of cities and palaces recorded on yellowed papyri from old archives be brought back to life. The ruins emerge slowly from the ground which covered them for centuries. What used to be systematically destroyed needs now to be raised anew. The ancient glory of Roman cities on our soil must be restored. The Road of Roman Emperors should link up all the places with rich ancient heritage to make up a cultural route more than 600 km long and put them to use as a resource for enhancing cultural tourism. They represent not only Serbia’s heritage but also that of Europe and the world.
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Sirmium was one of the imperial and most important cities in Serbia in ancient time, a legionary camp, one of the four imperial cities, as well as a diocesan centre. It was originally the administrative centre of the province of Lower Pannonia (Pannonia Inferior) and, after Diocletians administrative reforms, it became the centre of Second Pannonia (Pannonia Secunda). From 324 AD onwards it became the seat of the Illyrian diocese of the great prefecture of Italia Africa Illyricum. The original settlement was set up on the territory of the autochthonous tribes, the Sirmians and the Amantines (civitas Sirmiensis et Amantinorum). During the Flaviuses, most probably under Domitianuss rule (81-96 AD), Sirmium gained the status of a colony. There are epigraphic records of Sirmium as Flavia Sirmium, colonia Sirmium, Sirmensium or Sirmiensium. How important the city of Sirmium was, is also confirmed by the fact that it has been mentioned as the place where Marcus Aurelius died and the place where he had an imperial palace. Also, Maximinus of Thrace, usurpers Ingenuus and Regulianus, as well as Aurelian, Probus and Claudius Gothicus, Galerius, as well as Licinius stayed in Sirmium for a short or a longer period. As it is known, Constantine the Great definitely expelled Licinius from this city in October 314 AD. Sirmium developed rapidly thanks primarily to waterways, although the land routes leading from the West to the East ran precisely through that area. Sirmium came into being at the intersection of several communication lines. One of the most important was the route starting in Aquila in northern Italy and called Via Militaris. Another important route was the one linking the Danube frontier with Sirmium, whereas others ran towards the right bank of the Sava, towards Dalmatia and towards the mouth of the river Bosna, via the station Ad Basante. These routes bridged the river Sava with two bridges. One of the bridges is historically known as the place across which Licinius fled from Constantine. The second bridge is known as Pons Basentis and also as the place where martyr Iraeneus was beheaded. During the early period of the Empire Sirmium had the same status as Viminacium in the neighbouring province of Upper Moesia (Moesia Superior). During late ancient times, in particular during the period of tetrarchy at the beginning of the fourth century AD it became one of the four capitals of the Roman Empire. The city retained this high rank only for a short time because, due to the onsets of the barbarians, the capital of the Empire was transferred to Hellas. The city preserved its importance as a military stronghold and a place of concentration of the army for the operations against the approaching barbarian tribes. In the fourth century AD Sirmium has been mentioned as one of the most beautiful and one of the richest cities in Illyricum. Six emperors were born in Sirmium or in its immediate surroundings: Traianus Decius, Hostilian, Aurelian, Probus, Maximilianus Herculius and Gratian. As we are informed by the author Aurelius Victor, who is very knowledgeable of the circumstances in Pannonia, Traianus Decius was born in a small place called Budalia or Bubalia in the immediate vicinity of Sirmium. Aurelian, as we learn from sources, was also born in Sirmium. He came from a poor family (Sirmii familia obscuriore). The importance of Sirmium not only for the province of Pannonia but for the Roman Empire as well, is also attested to by the fact that the Roman emperor Claudius Gothicus (268-270 AD) spent a large part of his life in Sirmium. He was born in the province of Dalmatia and died in Sirmium during the epidemic of plague. The Roman emperor Aurelian was succeeded by Probus (276-282 AD), who was born and slain precisely in Sirmium, in the so called Iron Tower (in turrem ferratem). One of the tetrarchs, Maximianus Herculius, came into prominence due to his loyalty to Aurelian and Probus. He was born in Sirmium around 250 AD and after a failed plot he committed suicide in 309 AD or 310 AD. What is particularly important for the architecture of Sirmium is the fact that Maximianus Herculius built the imperial palace precisely at the place where he was born and where his parents worked as day labourers (ubi parentes eius exercebant opera mercenaria). Its strategic position which brought about its fast development proved to be an adverse circumstance at certain times. Easily accessible, situated in lowlands, it was invaded in alternation by the Goths, Huns, Gepids, Avars and Slavs. The Romans made great efforts to restore their power in the city, but their attempts more oft en than not were in vain. This period which lasted more than 200 years, from the fourth to the sixth centuries AD, left the city completely in ruins. Several places in the territory of present-day Serbia were confirmed as places of martyrdom where those who believed in Christianity lost their lives. The word martyr itself precisely says that it is the one who suffered because he believed in his faith. According to the number of martyrs, or if we look up the terminological root of the word in Greek, which means witness, Sirmium undoubtedly ranks first. In late ancient times it was known as one of the important centres of Christianity. In the papers of the Aquilean Council of 381 AD, Sirmium has been mentioned as the head of Illyricum (caput Illyrici). It is indisputable that according to the number of Christian martyrs Sirmium occupied the first place. The first historically confirmed bishop of Sirmium was Iraeneus (Iraeneus). His name is listed in the universal calendar of martyrs which is known under the name of Hieronymuss Martyrologium (Martyrologium Hieronymianum), which was compiled in northern Italy and dates back to late ancient times. Unfortunately, its original has not been preserved but it reached us in the form of a number of transcripts from the Carolingian period. According to the Roman calendar Iraeneus was killed on the 8th of the Ides, i.e. on 6 April 304 AD, on the Resurrection Day, as it has been mentioned. Persecution of Christian martyrs from Sirmium continued and only a few days later, more precisely on 9 April, Iraeneuss deacon by the name of Demetrius was killed. Besides Iraeneus and Demetrius, mentioned as martyrs are also gardener Sinerot (whose martyrdom has been confirmed), St. Anastasia, whose remains were first moved from Sirmium to Constantinople in the second half of the fifth century AD, during patriarch Genadius and later on, at the beginning of the ninth century AD, from Constantinople to Zadar, as well as Hermagora and Hermogen. The names of the martyrs indicate that most of them originate from Greece and that the spreading of Christianity was coming from that side. Bishop Domnus has been mentioned as a participant in the famous council of Nicaea which was convoked in 323 AD. During the rule of Constantius II Arianism was also confirmed as a doctrine in Sirmium. At present the remnants from ancient times can be found beneath the modern city and have only partly been put on display, to the extent allowed by the space left between modern buildings. The situation on the ground limits extremely the volume of explorations, but provides at the same time the entire infrastructure necessary for the display of ancient heritage. The excavations carried out since-mid twentieth century and subsequently, unearthed parts of a hippodrome, a number of luxurious houses decorated with frescoes and mosaics, city ramparts, a monumental palace imperial residence, parts of water supply system (aqueduct), etc. During 2008 the imperial palace and nearly 200 square meters of mosaics of extraordinary beauty will be covered with a special construction made of laminated wood. The present-day settlement Sremska Mitrovica, is a relatively small regional centre of incomparably lesser significance than the Roman city had more than 1600 years ago.
Thermae (thermae) are typical Roman buildings. As public facilities, they appear at the time of the Empire, both in Rome and in the provinces. It is known that thermae are not only body care facilities, but also places for rest and for various social activities. Architecturally, they were facilities which varied from one city to another. Hence, Viminaciums thermae may also be singled out not only because of their luxury, but because of their specific architecture. The long period of time during which they were in use (1st - 4th century AD) makes possible a clear distinction between individual stages in their construction. The thermae were already in use in the 80s AD and during the excavations on the site, archaeologists found fragments of an amphora with a preserved seal IMP DOMITIANI, which unequivocally points to the younger Vespasians son, emperor Domitian (81-96 AD) and his involvement in this territory in the fighting of 85, 86 and 88 AD, when the Dacians overran the Moesian region. Taking into account the fact that the area of Viminacium is most ideally placed for troop regroupings at the entrance of Đerdap section, it is possible that it was Viminacium where Domitian stationed his legions. It is known that Domitian also subdivided administratively the province of Moesia into Upper, which he referred to as Moesia Superior, and Lower, Moesia Inferior. Archaeological excavations registered a total of 5 conchae of which 4 served as tepidaria (warm water pools), whereas the fifth was a frigidarium (cold water pool). The thermae were preserved at the hypocaust level, which reflects several stages of construction. Remnants of frescoplastering and marble tiling indicate that the thermae were luxuriously decorated. The flooring at the old thermae, which was placed on the small brick pillars, was covered with mosaics. A large number of discovered candles testify to the fact that the thermae were certainly used also at night
The Roman camp (castrum) at Viminacium was built in the first decades of the 1st century AD. The existence of an earthwork fortification, although not archaeologically confirmed, was very likely built as early as the beginning of that century, and is associated with one of the first Moesian legions, Fourth Scythica or Fifth Macedonica. The erection of the first stone fortification, in the middle or in the second half of the 1st century AD, is associated with the Seventh Claudia Legion, which was based there throughout the ancient Roman period. The camps dimensions have been determined by geophysical methods and by analysis of digital soil sampling. They were 443 metres by 387 metres. These methods determined that the original camp was twice that size and that there is reason to believe that two legions were probably stationed there, most likely until Domitians edict of 86 AD. That year the order was issued that due to the threat posed to the Roman Empire, it was prohibited to station two legions at the same place. This method helped to determine the dimensions of the original camp and they are 774 metres by 443 metres. Although the Viminacium ruins were recorded as early as the 18th century by Count Marsilly, the first archaeological excavations on the site were associated with the works of Mihajlo Valtrović, at the end of the 19th century and of Miloje Vasić, at the beginning of the 20th century. Protective excavations of 1976- 1997 examined the Viminacium necropolis, while systematic archaeological excavations undertaken since 2002 have initiated exploration of the Roman city and the military camp. The excavations of 2002-2003 unearthed the north gate of the legions camp, the so-called Porta Praetoria. The remnants of the entrance gate with massive tiling, cesspool and lavishly decorated architectural elements point to the powerful defensive system for which the camp was built on the then northern frontier of the Empire. The unearthed store of bronze coins dating back to the beginning of the 4th until the middle of the 5th centuries AD indicates the time of the destruction of the camp which, after the Hun invasion in 441 AD was abandoned and had never since been restored to its former glory. Aerial pictures, as well as geo-radar and geomagnetic filming carried out on the site of the former castrum, provide a true picture of the camp with its ramparts, gates, turrets, the legions headquarters and barracks lying beneath the fertile cultivated fields of Stig.
A station on the Diana Falls (Statio cataractarum Dianae) is a Roman and early Byzantine fortification on the banks of the Danube near Karata in the vicinity of Kladovo. The fortification used to be at the entrance to the canal made in the first decade of the second century AD. In that section, the Danube had many whirlpools, rapids and underwater rocks that made navigation almost impossible. It was precisely for this reason that emperor Trajan built a canal running parallel with the river bypassing the impassable section and enabling an unimpeded navigation on the Danube. This great engineering work is commended by a small Trajans plaque that is nowadays at the entrance into the hydro-electric power plant Djerdap I. The strategic function of this camp was precisely to protect and ensure an unimpeded navigation in this canal.
The fortification existed in the period from the first to the sixth centuries. In comparison with the original line of the ramparts, in the fourth century there was a significant increase in its size and elevation of new lines of the wall. After the Hun invasion and its destruction, Iustinian I rebuilt it, but this did not prevent it from falling swiftly during the invasion of the Avars. Diana is one of our best explored border camps. Besides the wall and turrets inside the fortification containing military barracks, the headquarters and other facilities, the interior represents an excellent example of Roman military engineering.
arkamen is a late ancient Roman residential and memorial site. It is situated about 25km west of Negotin, in a narrow and closed valley called Vrelo, which is away from communication lines, trade routes and any trace of modern life. The name Vrelo is derived from the source of the Vrelo river, which flows out at this place from a nearby cave. On the other hand, the entire area, consisting of a narrow valley created by the Vrelo river from its source up to the village also named after the river, is known as arkamen. A simplified version of Kanitzs statement that arkamen was a Roman castrum protecting the road between Prahovo (Aquae) and Donji Milanovac (Taliata), has actually survived until the start of systemic excavations in 1994 when the explorations were taken over by Professor Dragoslav Srejović. In a space of 500m by 300m, there are five architectural cores, which have been only partially defined: the fortification, memorial grounds, large representative building, barn, bridge. Already at the time of excavating the fortification, instead of the expected military post, the traditional ramparts, gates, turrets and facilities associated with the military and typical of Roman military camps along the limes during the late ancient Roman period, archaeologists noted some elements indicating that the problem of arkamen was much more complex and intriguing. Also, that it was fully consistent with the concept that was clearly evident in the case of Gamzigrad as well. These late ancient Roman residential and memorial quarters are square as to base, 90m by 90m, however its walls were made of stone and have decorative libage-like layers of brick, using the technique opus mixtum. The grounds contain ten turrets, of 9m in inner diameter and 15m in outer diameter. The fortification was built, in the spirit of, and according to, the tenets and architectural standards of the fortification at Gamzigrad. However, it was smaller in size. It used the same kind of bricks containing the stamps of Fifth Macedonica Legion (Legio V Macedonica), which was stationed at Oescus (Oescus), now Gigen in northwestern Bulgaria. Like Gamzigrad and arkamen, it belonged to the late ancient Roman province of Riparian Dacia (Dacia Ripensis). A conclusion may be drawn that these buildings were built simultaneously. It is assumed that the works on the fortification at arkamen began immediately after Maximinus Daia had declared himself Caesar in 305 AD. The central point is definitely the memorial grounds comprising 5 facilities a small tumulus with the remains of buried ancestors, a paved platform used for practising the funeral cult, most probably a pedestal for porphyry statue of an emperor, workshops for statue sculpting and a mausoleum with a crypt (overarched building), which resembles very much the Romuliana mausoleum at Gamzigrad. The arkamen mausoleum was probably the burial place of Romulas daughter, sister of Galerius, mother of Maximinus Daia. Beside the mausoleum, by the crepidome, the archaeologists unearthed fragments of a monumental porphyry statue of Emperor Maximinus Daia, seated on the throne. Unearthed were segments of the throne, draped and nude segments of the emperors statue. One may assume that it was modelled on Galeriuss statue on the throne at Gamzigrad or on another similar statue from Antiochia. The statue was made of fine-grained marble brought from a quarry in Greece or Asia Minor. Missing from the statue were the head and the attribute in the right hand. North of the mausoleum there was a tumulus containing a necropolis made up of 6 graves, evidence of an unusual way of burying the dead. Cremation was the principal method of burial; the remains of bodies burnt at the stake were moved to urns or simple grave pits with few and poor possessions. The definition of arkamen was added the most important contribution by the archaeologists unearthing a set of gold imperial jewellery in the niche of a natural rock at the bottom of the mausoleum crypt. The pieces of jewellery included: 2 earrings, 3 rings, 3 necklaces, 2 round-shaped hairpins, a heart-shaped pendant and 9 gold foils. The jewelry, which was probably only a portion of the funeral stock is chronologically rather solid and dates back to the second half of the third and the beginning of the fourth centuries. It originated from major centres, perhaps from imperial workshops at Viminacium, Serdica or most likely from Naissus. The gold find indicates that the dead woman occupied a senior position economically and socially. Each piece of the gold jewellery symbolizes something and may be associated with a certain deity, thus more closely indicating the background of the location itself. Also exceptional is the finding of nine gold foils, four of them containing imprinted imperial portraits from the front of coins belonging to the tetrarchy period (Diocletian and Constantius Chlorus). The gold foils with descriptions of deity could represent the offerings pledged to the shrines of Jupiter Dolichenus, Juno, Mars, Apollo, and Sabasius. It is possible that these gold foils symbolize deification, apotheosis of the dead woman and glorification of the divine essence of the imperial house. The jewellery from this mausoleum is indirect evidence of the imperial and divine importance of the dead woman, empress mother. Maximinus Daia (305-313), by proclaiming himself as Caesar on the eve of 1 May 305 AD at the Court of Diocletians in Nicomedia, got the possibility to build in arkamen, miles from anywhere, the place of his birth, an edifice that would show to everyone in the empire that he was the ruler and god-given to lead the Romans to a better and more certain future. His early death prevented him from completing this grand project, and further excavations will show how much he had accomplished and future archaeological finds will reveal what he had intended to achieve with this architectural undertaking.
CITIES IN DARDANIAN LANDS
NAISSUS AND MEDIANA
Ni and Brzi Brod
Naissus is an important Roman and early Byzantine city which used to be the site of todays city of Ni. Later on fortifications and the present-day settlement have almost completely destroyed the remnants of this ancient city. The Romans inhabited the area of the city as early as the first century AD after they had defeated the Dardanians. Its location on an important commercial route conditioned its rapid economic development which was particularly evident in the fourth century AD, when it was home to a workshop for the manufacture of arms and a workshop for making silverware. Of particular interest are its finds such as a bronze head of Emperor Constantine, statue of the emperor seated on the throne and a store containing silver plates made to celebrate the tenth anniversary of Liciniuss reign. The explored section of the necropolis proved that the citizens of Naissus were wealthy people. In particular, mention should be made of tombs with frescoes including those of the earliest Christian images in the region of Illyricum.
Mediana is one of the most important ancient archaeological sites in this territory. It is situated on the left bank of the Niava river near Naissus. It is a sumptuous holiday home which was built, as assumed, for Constantine and his successors. The central building is a villa with a peristyle decorated with amazing floor mosaics. In addition to this building, also unearthed were thermae and an emporium, as well as a developed system of water supply with an aqueduct and a water tower. The structure dates back to the early fourth century AD. Excavations on the site of the holiday home are being carried out even today, under the supervision of experts from the Belgrade Archaeological Institute.
During excavations at Mediana in 2000, the hoard composed of segments of bronze railing was found. Bronze railing consisted of three cancelli, one semicancellus cast together with herm and herms with the busts of Aesculapius and Luna. It was presumed that in portrait of Luna could be recognized Faustina, the second wife of Constantine the Great. Following historical events it was supposed the railing had been made before 325 AD in some of Gaulish workshops. The railing was not initially produced to be exposed in Villa at Mediana, but was probably brought following the desire of Emperor Julian who spent some months in Naissus during 361 AD.
Viminacium (VIMINACIVM) was a major city (provincial capital) and military camp of the Roman province of Moesia (today's Serbia), and the capital of Moesia Superior. The archeological site occupies a total of 450 hectares. The city dates back to the 1st century AD and contains archaeological remains of temples, streets, squares, amphitheatres, palaces, hippodromes and Roman baths.
It lays on the Roman road Via Militaris.
A legion may have been stationed here as early as Augustus (27 BC-14 AD). In 33/34 AD a road is linked between Viminacium and Ratiaria. Claudius (41-54) garrisoned Viminacium, Oescus and Novae as Camps for the Moesian legions. The first legion attested at Viminacium was the VII Claudia that came there in 52 AD from Dalmatia.
Emperor Trajan (98-117) is headquartered here during the Dacian Wars. It became a colonia with minting privilege in 239 AD during the rule of Gordian III (238-244) and housed the Legion VII and Legion IV.
It was the provincial capital of Moesia Superior. In the late spring of 293-294 Diocletian journeyed through his realm and he re-organized Viminacium as capital of the new province of Moesia Superior Margensis. He registered that the people wrote in Latin, as opposed to Greek in the southern provinces. Viminacium was the base camp of Legio VII Claudia, and hosted for some time the IIII Flavia Felix. It had a Roman amphitheatre with room for 12,000 people.
In 382 it was the meeting place between Theodosius and Gratian amidst the Gothic Wars.
It was destroyed in 441 by the Attila the Hun, but rebuilt by Justinian I. During Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Viminacium saw destruction by the Avars in 582 and a crushing defeat of Avar forces on the northern Danube bank in 599, destroying Avar reputation for invincibility.
It is located in Stari Kostolac (Old Kostolac) a Serbian town on the Danube river, east of Belgrade.
* A 1,5 million year old mammoth skeleton was uncovered in the Viminacium site in June 2009
* A remarkable find of a 35 centimetre jade sculpture. The work shows the possibility of a workshop existant under the
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1.Viminacium-the Cemeteries Varrezat
2. Viminacium-pottery qeramike
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VIMINACIUM-THE BATHS (thermae) Banjet e ngrohta
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Fig.4 Finds from the tomb o f Firmi ni i famil y a,b,c-silver;d-gold
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